In paychecks, Michigan women have a long way to go, baby

Ann Arbor resident Sue Dean is a notable exception to the rule in Michigan.

With a 2008 master's degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan, Dean is a senior operations engineer for an Ann Arbor firm that makes holographic weapons sites. She also earns about twice the $49,449 median full-time wage attributed by census data to men in Michigan in 2013, the latest year available.

That puts her in a better space than most women who work full time in Michigan, who as a group earned on average just 75 cents on the dollar in 2013 compared with men who worked full time, according to a report by the National Women's Law Center. It's less than the U.S. average of 78 cents and places Michigan 41st lowest for women among the 50 states.

“Michigan obviously needs to make some strides,” Dean said. “I still run into people who have the old belief that a woman doesn't need to make as much as a man because she isn't the breadwinner.”

MORE COVERAGE: Hispanic women struggle with just over half the pay of men

A gender wage gap would appear to have sweeping implications for families and children in Michigan, given that 284,000 Michigan families were headed by a single female parent as of 2010, according to the U.S. Census.

According to analysis by the Michigan League for Public Policy, a Lansing nonprofit advocacy group, 28 percent of female-headed households in Michigan lived in poverty in 2012. And more than 40 percent of 315,000 low-income families in Michigan were headed by women.

The pay gap is wider for minority women. According to the report, African-American women earned 66 cents on the dollar compared with men in the state; for Hispanic women in Michigan, the rate was even worse, 57 cents.

Some skeptics

While advocates for equal pay argue that gender gaps should be addressed by lawmakers and industry, critics say that studies showing wide wage disparities can be misleading. Take the statistic that women nationally make 78 cents on the dollar earned by men. That gap, critics note, ignores the fact that women in large numbers tend to go into career fields that pay far less than jobs in top-earning professions.

“The sexes, taken as a group, are somewhat different,” wrote Christina Hoff Sommers, a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, in a Daily Beast column in February. “Women, far more than men, appear to be drawn to jobs in the caring professions; and men are more likely to turn up in people-free zones. In the pursuit of happiness, men and women appear to take different paths.”

Sommers noted, for instance, a Georgetown University study of the college majors pursued by men and women. All but one of the majors in the highest-paying fields are dominated by men (In Sue Dean’s major, electronic engineering, sixth in pay, 89 percent of students were male). Conversely, women dominate nine of 10 college majors that led to jobs paying the least amount of money.

Two years ago, a Washington Post fact-checking column took President Obama to task for citing a similar gender study in his State of the Union speech. The Post noted that other studies showed a narrower gap, including one that put the gender gap at closer to 5 cents on the dollar.

“There is clearly a wage gap, but differences in the life choices of men and women — such as women tending to leave the workforce when they have children — make it difficult to make simple comparisons,” the Post column stated.

Financial stress on moms

Whatever the size of the gap, Jane Zehnder Merrell of the Michigan League, said that gender disparities – particularly for low-income female-headed households – is a prescription for ongoing family stress and crisis that can affect multiple generations.

“The first thing is they can't afford housing. When you can't afford housing, you are forced into a situation where you are staying with relatives or friends, who often don't have any more resources than you do.

“Kids suffer,” she added. “What they talk about is toxic stress – the primary caregivers are often stressed themselves. Your primary person in the world is consumed in just trying to survive, not being able to focus on that child. It has long-term impact on academic achievement.”

And while more women in Michigan now have a post-high school education than men (45 percent women, 38 percent men), Zehnder-Merrell said too many women are still concentrated in low-paying jobs with little chance for upward mobility.

According to analysis by the National Women's Law Center, U.S. women in 2013 held 95 percent of child care jobs, 89 percent of home health aide work, 88 percent of housekeeping jobs and 65 percent of jobs in food preparation and serving. Those jobs had median annual incomes in Michigan of $18,000 to $20,000 – about on par with the 2015 federal poverty level for a family of three.

“There is a mindset that if you get a fast food job at McDonald's, in five years you are going to be able to step into management. There just isn't a (lucrative) career ladder for those jobs,” Zehnder-Merrell said.

Historic gains

A researcher with the National Women's Law Center pointed to historic gains in closing the gender pay gap, progress many trace to passage of the federal Equal Pay Act in 1963, a measure that required employers to pay women the same as men for equal work. But she added that progress seems to have stalled.

“We have made some strides since the Equal Pay Act was passed,” said Kate Gallagher Robbins. “But in the last 10 years, we've seen almost no change in the wage gap. We need to take some further actions. This isn't going away on its own.”

According to the center's analysis, U.S. women earned 60 percent of men in 1965, a figure that climbed to 65 percent by 1985, 74 percent by 1997 and 77 percent by 2002. But it has barely budged since then, standing at 78 percent in 2013.

Robbins credits Michigan lawmakers with raising the minimum wage last year, one of many steps she believes necessary to aid working women and help close the gap (Though there are now efforts in Lansing to ban cities from making minimum wage hikes on their own).

Her organization backs a federal measure that would kick in a steeper increase, raising the minimum wage to $12 an hour by 2020 and indexing it to inflation after that.

Equal pay advocates also back other measures to close the gap:

  • The Paycheck Fairness Act, a federal measure introduced in 2007 to give workers tools to combat wage discrimination and bar retaliation against workers for discussing salary information. It is stalled in Congress.
  • The federal Equal Employment Opportunity Restoration Act, introduced in 2012, would ensure workers' ability to bring large-scale, class-action lawsuits on pay and discrimination issues against employers. It is given little immediate chance of passage, especially in the GOP-controlled House.

In Michigan, Senate Minority Leader Jim Ananich, D-Flint, backs a measure that would allow Michigan employees to accumulate paid sick leave, and would give workers paid time off to recover from illnesses or care for a sick family member, responsibilities that often are borne primarily by women. While advocates say that could be of critical help to female-headed families, GOP lawmakers in control of the state Senate say the measure would stunt job growth.

Equal pay advocates argue that differences in career choices represent only part of the explanation for why men earn more. As many studies have noted, women typically assume a higher share of family responsibilities than men.

Analysis by the Pew Research Center indicates that women continue to sacrifice career opportunity and pay for such family priorities. That appears to have significant impact on career earnings.

Its 2015 survey found that 39 percent of working mothers said they had taken significant time off from work to care for a child or family member. That compared to 24 percent of working fathers. More than 50 percent of the women said being a working parent made it harder to advance in their job, compared with 16 percent of men.

A report this year by the American Association of University Women found that the gender gap only grows with age, with women earning about 90 percent of what men make until age 35. After that, women fall to making 75-80 percent of men’s pay.

STEM divide

And even though the number of women working in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields has grown, that trend may have stalled as well.

A 2013 Census Bureau analysis of women in STEM occupations noted that progress in employing women has been uneven since the 1970's. It found that employment of female engineers grew from 3 percent in 1970 to 13 percent in 2011, while employment of female computer workers grew from 14 percent in 1970 to just over 30 percent in 1990, before falling to 27 percent in 2011.

“By 2011, women’s representation had grown in all STEM occupation groups. However, they remained significantly underrepresented in engineering and computer occupations, occupations that make up more than 80 percent of all STEM employment female engineers is rising,” it stated.

Minority females are particularly underrepresented in engineering and other sciences. According to the National Science Foundation, black and Hispanic women account for just 2 percent of women working in engineering and science fields in 2010.

Detroit native Amber Spears, a 24-year-old African American, is proud to count herself among that number. She has a 2012 bachelor's degree in engineering from the University of Michigan and a 2014 master's degree in engineering from the University of Texas. She is employed as a civil engineer with NTH Consultants, Ltd., based in suburban Detroit.

Stories of promise

Spears credits her career to exposure as a seventh grader to the Detroit Area Pre-College Engineering Program, a nonprofit program aimed at broadening participation among minority youth in STEM fields. She continued with the program through high school, earning a scholarship to the University of Michigan.

Her career path could also serve as a counterpoint to the argument that women make less because they choose to enter professions that simply pay less. Advocates for equal pay argue that while this may be so, young girls are too often still given the message that certain professions are a man’s province.

“I do think it starts very early,” Spears said. “There is definitely a cultural box you can be put in. A lot of times it boils down to what you are exposed to in your own community.”

Gloria Thomas, director of the Center for the Education of Women at the University of Michigan, said outreach efforts like that the program that benefited Spears need to be expanded.

“There has got to be the will and the desire to make a change,” Thomas said. “It's still unusual for women of color to find a mentor for their career. That all leads to upward mobility and we still have challenges there.”

Dean, the Ann Arbor engineer, took a more circuitous path to her career destination, aided by some encouraging words from a male work colleague. About 18 years ago, she was doing administrative work at an Ann Arbor startup firm, earning about $10 an hour. An engineer at the firm encouraged her to look into engineering. She had only a high school degree at the time.

“He coaxed me. He convinced me it was possible to be a late-in-life student,” recalled Dean, 51. Taking classes at night at first while she continued her job, Dean earned an associates degree from Washtenaw Community College and an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Michigan in 2003.

Dean said her firm, L-3 Communications EOTech, is trying to expand its staff of female engineers. But she noted the firm recently posted two job openings, one for an engineer technician, the other a test engineer. She said the openings attracted about 80 applications, all but four from men.

The jobs went to two men. And for that, she puts some of the blame on women.

“I don't understand why we don't get more applications from women,” Dean said.

Facts matter. Trust matters. Journalism matters.

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Tue, 06/09/2015 - 9:56am
So the article indicates that the gap is much closer to $0.95 when comparing apples to apples; men and women with similar education levels and working in similar jobs. So why repeat the $0.77 gross inaccuracy. Any gap is bad. And inaccuracy in reporting is equally bad.
david zeman
Thu, 06/11/2015 - 2:13pm
No, Dann, that's not what the article said. It said that different analyses came up with different gaps, and neither end of that spectrum was comparing on an apples-to-apples industry basis. We reported on both of them to show there is a lack of uniformity in the studies regarding a gender pay gap.
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 9:59am
My experience as a past supervisor was that women who worked in our area were paid equivalent to men. My profession was in a STEM field. I did volunteer work for DAPCEP, and observed, like what was stated in the article, that there was a large male/female gap when it came to interest in the program. Until we see statistics on pay for equal work, then I do not believe the premise of this article. I also do not feel that government should in any way get into what a person is paid. If Sen Jim Ananich had his way, a hospital orderly would be paid the same as a brain surgeon.
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 11:09am
Questionable whether there is any gap at all when data is examined. Risk factor and conditional hardship also are areas that split men and women with large pay implications. Commission sales careers also are dominated by men. This article just repeats Democratic talking points and pot stirring for airheads .
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 11:15am
From what I read here the disparity is in life choices. The article paints single moms and low education/skills people as if it is a disease that strikes. No mention of single dads. The real issue is equal pay for equal work. That doesn't mean equal pay for equal work based on a position or title. It is performance. What of the dominance of women in the real estate field. Pay is on commission and that's performance. Why aren't they destitute and hit by the pay disease? I find the article shallow and simplistic at best. A champion of creating victims. It only takes one exception to break a rule. Michigan has volumes of rule breakers who succeed. I know several single moms who have houses, children and good jobs supporting a good life. Then there are all the others who are paralyzed by themselves and their choices.
Jim hendricks
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 2:14pm
Unless we are comparing equal postions with equal experience, the data is worthless. I'm getting tired if this constant regurgitating of criminally flawed data to score political points and induce another heavy-handed incursion by government busy-bodies into the market. And please, men and women ARE different, and this will sometimes lead to different concentrations in the job market. And not to beat a dead horse, engineering is really, really tough.
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 4:26pm
Funny side comment: My daughter has a PhD in Electrical Engineering and wanted to teach math in high school. They told her that because her degree wasn't in math, that they could not consider her. She did tell them that engineering is a very math intensive subject, and that she had had more math courses than someone graduating with a BS in Math.
Leon L. Hulett, PE
Wed, 06/17/2015 - 2:14pm
Rich, June 9, 2015 at 4:26 pm Here are some recommendation for your daughter if she wants to teach Math at that school: 1. She should take her application to specific school board members personally and if see anyone will champion her case with the powers that be in that school. 2. Take her case directly to the School Board, they normally meet once a month a in Michigan. 3. I have a Minor in Math for the same reasons as your daughter, I took a lot of Math and took the same courses that a Math major might take. Your daughter certainly has a Minor in Math, even if she does not think of it that way. 4. Go to the Intermediate School District and present your case there. 5. Schools would certainly require a Teaching Certificate, and possibly your daughter does not have one. That is the more probable reason for her application not being accepted. 6. Another option is to go to someone else at the school, like a friendly and sympathetic Superintendent or Principal that could hear your case. One of these people is almost certainly the person who made the requirement that a person with a Math Degree be hired. 7. Another option is to go to someone in the community that has demonstrated influence with the school. 8. Another option might be to get an additional Math. You might have all the courses already and it might be little more than a formality with a friendly college. My last suggestion is do a "work-in". Apply to the Intermediate School District to do substitute teaching and apply only to the school you want to teach Math in.... Let the ISD place you in that school teaching Math until they hire you full time. Best of Luck, Leon
Wed, 06/10/2015 - 1:49am
Jim, " is really, really tough." Not reality, its mostly persistence and the investment of time. Best guest most students could do it,
Dying for the Truth
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 4:39pm
No one ever talks about the huge disparity in on the job deaths between men and women. 93% of on the job deaths are men. Job risk is something that goes into compensation, or at least it should. Just sayin'
Ted Roelofs
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 5:17pm
Wage and salary studies are always a matter of how you quantify and compare data. Women do earn less than men, even though experts may debate how much this has to do with wage discrimination. Clearly, women make different career choices than men. As workers, the evidence says that women give higher priority to family issues than men. It appears to be a socially-applauded value with a dollar sign attached to it. And it is also worth remembering that this earnings gap has a clear impact on children in female-headed households.
Wed, 06/10/2015 - 9:34am
This is like saying that because people generally spend more money on pet dogs than they do on pet cats, therefore it's evidence of discrimination, dogs vs. cats and their owners. Further people with cats should receive a subsidy to balance this inequity. Completely meaningless except for propaganda purposes.
Charles Richards
Tue, 06/09/2015 - 5:34pm
Numerous studies by economists have shown that once you account for all the variables involved, the pay gap all but disappears. Of course, Mr. Roelofs isn't interested in reality; he is more interested in pushing a popular "social justice" cause. Then, he foolishly compounds his error by advocating measures (minimum wage and paid leave) that would drive up the cost of hiring poor women and thus make their situation even worse.
david zeman
Thu, 06/11/2015 - 2:30pm
Charles, your comments are becoming tiresome. Critiques are of course welcome, but assigning nefarious motives to the writer based on zero evidence is absurd. That some economists have reached the conclusion that the gap is indeed much narrower and that many women voluntarily choose to enter less lucrative fields IS IN THIS STORY. Neither Ted nor anyone else at Bridge tried to hide that from readers. That divergence in analysis and perspective among researchers and advocates is what makes the story more interesting. Moreover, Ted didn't "foolishly compound" anything. Ted is not the one advocating the measures mentioned in the story. It is advocates for equal wage laws who are pushing for that. What would have been foolish is for Ted to have left mention of those policy priorities out of the story, it's part of what makes this issue one ripe for Bridge readers. The comments section is intended as a place for honest, even sharp, debate. And I think we have the best comments section in Michigan, consistently high-quality conversation. So debating our findings, our word choice, and yes our mistakes when we make them, is what this space is for. But impugning the integrity of the writers, without anything to back it up other than your own position on the issue, is disappointing.
Leon L. Hulett, PE
Mon, 06/15/2015 - 3:16pm
David Zeman, June 11, 2015 at 2:30 pm David, I think you, Ted and Bridge are possibly beating a dead-horse here. Unless this is only about political positioning and not the facts. I estimate that "Affirmative Action" had made its mark by bout 1980. That's when I saw a concerted effort on the part of businesses nation wide, to hire minorities over majority workers, and not use ability (or bigotry) as the primary and only criteria. I think that ship has long since sailed. That horse is dead. I believe the reason for the perceived gaps in gender, race and low incomes, here in Michigan and America, have an entirely different cause than Bridge seems to be addressing (or shall I say are willing to address). Miss Dean points out 80 applications for two highly technical jobs. Only 4 female applicants applied. How come? As I pointed out in my proposed Commentary on "Why Johny Can Not Work": the actual purpose of education is to teach the ability to work and for the student to acquire the ability to work. I have heard hundreds of other possibilities but none so clearly true to the mark as this one. But let's take a quick look at a topic that might be addressed in a curriculum, or here at Bridge, that was oriented more closely to the student's life work, or an employee's life work: "the willingness to work." As Miss Dean points out in this very article, she was coached by a co-worker, a Mentor, if you will, into beginning a successful Engineering life's work late in life. As a matter of fact she was the exact same age, if not the same circumstance, as Miss Rodriguez in the companion article who makes $10/hr, and whose prospects are not too good. On the other hand, Miss Dean now makes about $100,000 per year (add with additional benefits). So what did Miss Dean's Mentor do that no one else in Miss Dean's life was able to do? She acquired "The Willingness" to pursue and do Electrical Engineering training and work. In fact I believe this is the "willingness to work". The Mentor opened the door for Miss Dean. They have not been opened for Miss Rodriquez despite the food stamps and other supportive programs too numerous to mention. Now is this about some guardian angle or rare "Mentor"? No, it is not. It about the rare gift a Mentor bestowed on a fortunate person: "The willingness to work." All of Miss Dean's education did not do this. The Mentor did. It was not about gender or race. I have seen and done this same thing regardless of race or gender or national origin. As an example of all this I put together a little one hour course for a Robotic's Class about 2 years ago. It was called "The Applied Knowledge Workshop", but in fact what I took up primarily was "The Willing and "The Unwilling." What attitudes would a person be exposed to before they came to work? I taught the students to demonstrate with a few examples and then I asked them this question: a person could be told something and this would make him become an unwilling student and an unwilling worker, unable to apply what they had been taught. On the other hand one could be told things that made them more willing to study, to work and to apply. I had them use one side of the table for "The Willing" and the other side for "The Unwilling." Demonstrate what things you have heard "Willing" or "Unwilling?" and physically place these ideas on the side of the table they represented. I showed them some examples from my experience, I was sitting in the back of a class and a student in a Math Class said, "I will never use this in my life. I'm going to be a Psychiatrist." I asked them was this student "Willing" to learn or "Unwilling"? I gave a few more typical examples and then had each of them recall things they had heard and then demonstrate the circumstances to another student. One student soon blurted out. "We hear these things all the time!!" I am quite certain that was true. His comment was exactly on point. I also had the students make up some examples of the willing student, or worker, or someone who was willing to apply things, their own ideas to their own lives. My wife is probably every bit as intelligent as Miss Dean. She told me the reason she left Engineering and Design back about 1970. She was in a Design Class at a Junior College with one other young woman. The Professor said, rather pointedly to both the young women, "Engineering is not for women." "You will not pass my class." "It is required to graduate." The other young woman got up, expressed her disgust, and left the class. My girl friend and future wife, did not. She persisted. She got sick and then left college, and did not tell me about it till recently. It was a traumatic event. I believe this topic of "unwillingness to work" is the actual reason, or a more rational reason, for the "gaps" Bridge is so actively advocating against. It does point to an actual solution. Any person reading Bridge Magazine knowing this topic could be a Mentor. They could take the initiative and create any number of Miss Deans. Any student knowing this topic could more easily apply what they learned...and not be defeated by negative ideas laid before them continuously by The Unwilling. Students need to learn how to work, and to not be defeated by those who don't. Each of us can be a part of the solution.
Ted Roelofs
Wed, 06/10/2015 - 3:10pm
At risk of repeating the circular debate above, the article does NOT state that women earn less than men for the same work. The 75-cents-on-the-dollar figure is for earnings for men and women worked at least 30 hours a week. We can all decide for ourselves if this difference - much of it do to career choices, the fact that women work fewer hours than men and the fact that women tend to put family ahead of work more than men - is just fine. I would hope we would not assign blame to low-income head-of-household working women who are doing their best to support their family, as if this is the life they would choose.
Sun, 06/14/2015 - 10:45pm
It sounds like the wage is a gross average earning independent of any factors other than pay. Such gross numbers without specific qualifiers seems to lead people to make their own interpretations, much of which is based on personal perceptions. The risk of such information is that it becomes the foundation of barriers to understanding a problem and developing the means to address it. Even Ms. Dean's remarks of Michigan needing to make strides can be reinforcing of miss perceptions, what kind of strides should be made? I believe that individual educational success would lead to changing in the data. However, even the lack of clarification of Ms. Dean income status relative to other mechanical engineers or other engineers leaves the question open whether she is being paid on par with men. An example such as Ms. Dean's shold be used to clarify, in this case showing how education can have a signficant impact on income and how it can be an equalizer with men. That example should have offered up how an engineering degree could be a practical way for girls currently in school to succeed economically. Michigan doesn;t have to make strides, the individuals need to make educational strides. This could be a good series if the next article show how education impacts income, how the field of study (engineering vs. a none technical degree vs. certification) impacts income, how level of degree and the path way (time, effort, cost) impact income. It would also be interesting if an article related quality of life to educational level.
Thu, 06/11/2015 - 5:02pm
These studies are at times misleading if only some or selected data is used to come to a conclusion. At least in this article different studies are quoted. And when it comes to stats, you can make "numbers dance on a page" depending on how you input them. One other factor is paying for performance. Some people perform better than others. Also many companies pay for experience and I didn't see much of that mentioned. Women often have shorter careers or are part-time because the main responsibility of raising children is often put on their shoulders which will lessen their experience factor in determining their pay rate. . There are already laws in place to keep pay rates in line for both genders. Based on my comments, and many that I see above, I would think we don't need additional laws to take care of things. It sounds good when a politician is on their "soapbox" trying to garner votes, but too often misleading information is being used to excite the masses.
Sun, 06/14/2015 - 8:16am
Just leave the state. It's a waste of your education investment and tax dollars, plus you have a lower return if you raise a daughter here. Michigan is way too backwards and immature to understand this. Don't waste your time.
Martha T
Wed, 06/17/2015 - 5:33pm
One factor I have not yet seen addressed here is the promotion gap that leads to pay differentials. One of my engineer daughters works for a big, national aerospace company. She has a UM master's in systems engineering. She was tasked to train a young man for a supervisory position. Her boss admitted that she was better qualified, but said "he has a family to support." She is, actually, the major breadwinner in her family. This happened in late 2014. It feels to me as if we have actually regressed, if people who should know better say and do such things. Oh, and she also has the frequent experience of repeatedly pointing out a problem or a solution at a meeting and being ignored. Then, when a man says the exact same thing, people jump on it as a revelation. Sexism is far from dead.
Leon L. Hulett, PE
Fri, 06/19/2015 - 11:09am
Martha T, June 17, 2015 at 5:33 pm Martha, You have my sympathies for your daughter, but what you are seeing is not likely the "Sexism" you suggest. It is another mentality. After 30 years in Aerospace I don't think they handle people high on the Bell Curve, or "high achievers" very well. I expect that your daughter is one of those, or maybe I should say, one of us. They like schmoozers and sycophants, "Yes men" or "Yes women", political types, as you wish. These people are not the people that build such companies. If your daughter is one of us that do, then expect a conflict in such a career and plan for it. One manager I had was a tyrant. His name was Gershan. He met most any objection or keen insight with the same remark, "There are 50 Engineers waiting in line out there to take your place. If you are not happy just leave!" As it happened, I had interviewed 50 companies in college to get that one offer. His opinion had a certain weight. At one Fortune 500 Company I had won 20 major contracts in a row, a 100% Proposal success rate. These 30-year contracts built the Engineering Department and ensured its future. My boss had lost 100% of the Proposals he bid on. In my Annual Review his comment was, "Well, you didn't have any major screw-ups this year, so I don't have much to say." I had calculated my Net Worth to the company before the Review and gave him my frank opinion. He said nothing. When I left the company the stock of that Fortune 500 Company dropped almost that exact amount I had given him, 15 hours. I believe people have a worth to a company and take it with them when they leave. At another prestigious but small Space Company (I was their Engineering Manager) I had submitted a Cost Reduction Suggestion that amounted to more than the entire company's profit for one year. The owner of this company was also a tyrant. He fired me on the spot. ...and then offered to hire me back when he cooled down. At another small company, my proposals and successes increased the size of the company 2x each year I was there. When I left it returned to the size it would have been had I not been there. Your daughter should be very proud of the contributions she does make to her company. She should disregard any comments or actions by others to the contrary. She should choose wisely when she leaves a company and plan the leaving well. She should go to a company that knows her well and values her contributions. One company hired a Private Detective to look the world over to fine me. The Owner of that company said he hired only according to, what he called the "80:20 Rule." He believed 80 percent of the work in a company is done by 20 percent of the workers. He hired only these "20 Percenter's." He said I was one of these "20 Percenter's". He hired me with a 15 percent pay raise. I trained his people to be "20 Percenters". In fact he was a smart tyrant and had not hired only "20 Percenter's". 10 years after hiring me he sold his company for 20X what it had been worth when I came there. I think your daughter is one of these "20 Percenter's." You have my best wishes and warmest regards.