Michigan leans on long-term substitutes as its schools struggle

Long-term substitute Kathleen Van Fossen

 Kathleen Van Fossan plans to become a long-term substitute first-grade teacher this fall at Charlton Heston Academy in St. Helen, where 44 percent of classrooms were led by long-term subs - who aren’t certified teachers - last year. (Bridge photo by Ron French)

One applied for jobs at a county road commission and as an office manager before unexpectedly being offered a teaching post.

Another was an assistant basketball coach before walking into an elementary school classroom.

A third was a wedding planner before teaching fifth-grade math and science. 

None of them were certified teachers when they were assigned full-time teaching posts in Michigan classrooms. None majored in education in college.

About this project

A rising number of Michigan public schools are staffing classrooms with long-term substitutes with as little as 60 college credits and no formal education training. Bridge examines the implications of this practice for the state’s already-struggling schools. 

Wednesday


​Thursday

More than 2,500 Michigan classrooms were led by long-term substitutes who weren’t certified teachers in the 2018-19 school year – a stunning tenfold increase in just five years that threatens to hobble efforts to improve the state’s K-12 public education system, a Bridge Magazine analysis shows.

Students who need good teachers the most – low-income and academically struggling students – are the most likely to be stuck with long-term substitutes who aren’t required to have a four-year degree or any teacher training.

Check how many long-term substitutes are in your school district or charter 

Interviews with more than three-dozen school officials, education leaders, teachers and long-term substitutes describe a well-intentioned, stopgap measure designed to fill a few slots during a statewide teacher shortage that has metastasized into a policy that has seen some schools staff more than half their classrooms with long-term substitutes.

The policy ‒ allowing people with as few as 60 college credits in any subject to teach a class for a full year ‒ is now viewed as a “necessity” by the Michigan Department of Education to plug holes in schools that didn’t exist a decade ago. School and state leaders say they hope the use of long-term substitutes to staff classrooms is a temporary fix until the state addresses its teacher shortage. 

But with no statewide policy efforts on the horizon to address the shortage of teachers in urban and rural regions of the state, it’s not clear how temporary the fix will be.

Having more Michigan classrooms led by untrained teachers because of a teacher shortage is “putting a Band-Aid on a wound,” said Elizabeth Birr Moje, dean of the University of Michigan’s School of Education. “It stops the bleeding, but doesn’t address the underlying problem.”

A traditional teacher certification in Michigan requires a bachelor’s degree in a teachable subject, completion of a teacher preparation program, student teaching experience and passing teacher certification tests that measure general and subject matter knowledge. There are also one-year, alternative certification programs for career professionals looking to move into education from other fields.

 

Michigan’s increased reliance on long-term substitutes who often have little or no education training is severe in some areas of the state. Several Detroit charter schools appear to have been staffed completely by long-term substitute teachers this past school year, according to a Bridge analysis of state data. 

At Benton Harbor Area Schools, where Gov. Gretchen Whitmer has threatened to close the high school because of poor academic performance, 42 percent of classrooms were staffed by long-term substitutes during the past school year.

Yet long-term subs are rare in wealthy, suburban schools, the data show.

The state cannot have "expectations that are different based on the ZIP code you are coming from," said Nikolai Vitti, superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools Community District. The district had 92 long-term subs last year, less than 3 percent of the 3,500-member teaching staff.  

To have “more than 50 percent of your faculty being long-term subs, that's unacceptable,” Vitti said.

According to Bridge’s analysis:

  • Students attending low-income school districts and charters were three times more likely to have a classroom led by a long-term substitute than students in other districts.

  • Charter school students were four times more likely to have a long-term substitute than students in traditional public schools.

  • Students in the lowest academic-performing school districts and charters were more than three times more likely to have long-term substitutes instead of certified teachers.

  • Sixteen charter school districts have more than half of their classrooms staffed with long-term substitutes; 25 charters and the Benton Harbor schools have more than 40 percent long-term subs.

How many long-term subs in your district?

Use this tool to see how many subs are in a district and the percent of teaching slots held by long-term subs. You can put any part of a district’s name in the search box. Charter schools are denoted with an asterisk.

School (*charter schools) Teachers Long-term subs
2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
Keys Grace Academy*
488 students
99% poor
25 29 25 0% 0% 0%
Muskegon Heights Public School Academy System*
644 students
93.5% poor
67 69 50 8.7% 7.5% 6.1%
Multicultural Academy*
171 students
92.4% poor
23 13 15 0% 8.7% 20%
Eaton Academy*
346 students
78.6% poor
28 23 21 13% 0% 61.9%
Midland Academy of Advanced and Creative Studies*
154 students
31.2% poor
16 19 14 31.6% 19.2% 59.3%
Francis Street Primary School*
32 students
100% poor
0 0 2 0% 0% 0%
Benton Harbor Area Schools
1,941 students
82.9% poor
124 118 97 32.3% 13.7% 42.3%
Waldron Area Schools
211 students
66.4% poor
20 24 21 12.3% 5% 38.2%
Powell Township Schools
35 students
62.9% poor
6 6 6 0% 0% 33.3%
Mid Peninsula School District
174 students
65.5% poor
13 11 12 0% 24% 32.6%
Big Bay De Noc School District
165 students
69.1% poor
19 15 16 20.3% 21.4% 31.4%
Outlook Academy*
53 students
81.1% poor
7 6 6 0% 0% 0%
Troy School District
13,150 students
15.4% poor
812 822 841 0% 0.1% 0%
South Lyon Community Schools
8,697 students
17.2% poor
496 521 510 0% 0% 0%
Plymouth Scholars Charter Academy*
769 students
12.5% poor
42 48 45 6.3% 0% 6.6%
Achieve Charter Academy*
763 students
14.3% poor
38 47 42 4.3% 7.8% 4.7%
Detroit Leadership Academy*
796 students
96.6% poor
28 27 37 25.9% 0% 52.1%
Beaver Island Community School
49 students
46.9% poor
11 9 10 0% 0% 0%
Colfax Township S/D #1F
19 students
68.4% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Chandler Woods Charter Academy*
779 students
21.8% poor
42 43 44 0% 0% 2.3%
Rockford Public Schools
7,987 students
17% poor
464 470 483 0% 0% 0%
Rochester Community School District
15,451 students
11.4% poor
856 876 885 1.4% 0.7% 0.8%
Novi Community School District
6,698 students
9% poor
441 440 461 0% 0.2% 0%
Bloomfield Hills Schools
5,506 students
11.4% poor
433 443 438 0.2% 0% 0%
Byron Center Public Schools
4,157 students
26.4% poor
199 201 206 0% 0% 0%
Northville Public Schools
7,375 students
6.6% poor
444 441 438 0% 0% 0%
Inkster Preparatory Academy*
180 students
89.4% poor
7 8 8 25% 0% 50%
Saline Area Schools
5,296 students
12.8% poor
317 332 351 0.3% 0% 0%
Riverside Academy*
999 students
99% poor
65 68 66 7.4% 1.6% 37.9%
Forest Hills Public Schools
9,774 students
11.8% poor
576 586 566 0.5% 0.3% 0.4%
North Saginaw Charter Academy*
512 students
96.9% poor
44 46 37 4.3% 0% 35.2%
Ann Arbor Public Schools
18,055 students
25% poor
1,151 1,343 1,380 0.4% 0.3% 0.3%
St. Joseph Public Schools
3,003 students
31% poor
156 153 158 0.7% 0.6% 1.3%
Caledonia Community Schools
4,840 students
18.6% poor
260 280 288 0% 0.4% 0%
Haslett Public Schools
2,685 students
26% poor
165 174 178 0% 0% 0.6%
Okemos Public Schools
4,552 students
20.1% poor
276 279 291 0% 0.7% 0%
South Canton Scholars Charter Academy*
780 students
27.2% poor
49 52 53 1.9% 0% 3.8%
Houghton-Portage Township School District
1,409 students
30.1% poor
83 88 91 1.1% 0% 1.1%
Hudsonville Public School District
6,855 students
20.4% poor
379 389 411 0.5% 0% 0.2%
Birmingham Public Schools
8,072 students
8.8% poor
624 647 660 0.2% 0% 0.5%
Schoolcraft Community Schools
1,066 students
28.7% poor
59 70 65 0% 0% 0%
Dexter Community School District
3,661 students
11.3% poor
245 269 268 0% 2% 0.4%
Williamston Community Schools
1,879 students
22.4% poor
96 100 105 0% 2.1% 1%
Lakeshore School District (Berrien)
2,785 students
30.7% poor
169 174 174 0% 0% 1.2%
Brighton Area Schools
5,998 students
13.9% poor
329 343 358 9.3% 11.6% 9.2%
Bedford Public Schools
4,324 students
19.9% poor
237 240 236 0% 0.4% 0.4%
Saugatuck Public Schools
836 students
36% poor
52 53 52 0% 0% 0%
Lake Orion Community Schools
7,357 students
23.5% poor
447 432 445 0.2% 0% 0%
Merritt Academy*
552 students
50.4% poor
60 66 64 3.1% 1.7% 3.1%
East Grand Rapids Public Schools
2,886 students
6% poor
162 171 183 0% 0% 0%
Plymouth-Canton Community Schools
17,491 students
20.5% poor
942 910 1,008 0.8% 0.4% 0.3%
Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools
457 students
55.4% poor
32 36 40 0% 0% 0%
Jenison Public Schools
5,094 students
30.9% poor
300 318 336 0% 1% 0.6%
Grand Haven Area Public Schools
6,064 students
32% poor
384 381 387 1% 0.3% 0.3%
DeWitt Public Schools
3,197 students
18.5% poor
162 167 177 0% 0% 0%
Chelsea School District
2,443 students
14% poor
151 155 158 0.6% 0% 0%
Les Cheneaux Community Schools
224 students
46.9% poor
18 18 21 5.6% 5.6% 4.9%
Hartland Consolidated Schools
5,482 students
16.9% poor
283 305 318 0.3% 1.4% 2.5%
Berkley School District
4,377 students
18.1% poor
279 282 288 9.2% 3.9% 13.2%
Excel Charter Academy*
774 students
51.3% poor
43 49 49 0% 0% 0%
Vanguard Charter Academy*
778 students
52.8% poor
41 45 46 0% 0% 0%
Walker Charter Academy*
739 students
45.2% poor
43 43 43 2.3% 0% 2.3%
Lowell Area Schools
3,809 students
30.6% poor
209 200 212 0% 0.5% 0%
Hamilton Community Schools
2,729 students
27.1% poor
151 159 163 0% 0.7% 1.8%
Wayland Union Schools
3,057 students
38.8% poor
164 168 174 0% 1.2% 0%
Spring Lake Public Schools
2,468 students
17.7% poor
139 141 144 1.4% 0.7% 0%
Dundee Community Schools
1,663 students
37.6% poor
83 84 87 0% 2.4% 0%
Marysville Public Schools
2,770 students
31.6% poor
140 148 148 0% 0.7% 0%
Walled Lake Consolidated Schools
13,642 students
26.1% poor
765 768 768 0.4% 0.5% 0.9%
Portage Public Schools
8,804 students
25.4% poor
503 497 506 0% 0% 0%
ACE Academy (SDA)*
186 students
100% poor
16 12 6 0% 25% 31.7%
Mattawan Consolidated School
3,756 students
18% poor
207 228 235 1.3% 0.5% 1.3%
Pentwater Public School District
259 students
49.4% poor
18 18 18 0% 0% 0%
Grosse Ile Township Schools
1,819 students
10.9% poor
103 103 113 0% 0% 0%
Glen Lake Community Schools
660 students
28.2% poor
53 55 54 0% 1.9% 0%
Zeeland Public Schools
6,241 students
26.2% poor
346 352 374 0.3% 0.6% 0.5%
Grosse Pointe Public Schools
7,652 students
18.8% poor
554 533 545 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
Allendale Public Schools
2,700 students
30.2% poor
154 153 165 0% 0% 0%
New Buffalo Area Schools
545 students
42% poor
58 55 55 0% 0% 0%
Hopkins Public Schools
1,657 students
38.5% poor
88 88 94 0% 0% 0%
Bridgman Public Schools
908 students
43.2% poor
71 70 72 0% 2.8% 0%
Rising Stars Academy*
125 students
93.6% poor
4 2 6 0% 0% 0%
Anchor Bay School District
5,938 students
25.1% poor
314 313 312 0% 0% 0%
Frankenmuth School District
1,319 students
20.5% poor
53 66 68 1.5% 0% 0%
Otsego Public Schools
2,330 students
40% poor
123 134 144 0% 0% 0%
Trenton Public Schools
2,557 students
23.4% poor
171 174 174 0% 0% 0%
Freeland Community School District
2,012 students
17.4% poor
94 107 110 0% 0% 0%
Linden Community Schools
2,713 students
27.1% poor
148 145 148 0% 0% 1.4%
Grandville Public Schools
5,666 students
21.8% poor
308 331 317 0% 0% 0.3%
Clarkston Community School District
7,334 students
21.3% poor
464 474 473 3.4% 0.4% 6.3%
The Dearborn Academy*
509 students
99.4% poor
50 49 43 30.7% 25.9% 30%
Edwardsburg Public Schools
2,742 students
31.5% poor
136 134 146 0% 1.5% 0.7%
Pewamo-Westphalia Community Schools
676 students
19.8% poor
34 35 34 0% 0% 0%
Coopersville Area Public School District
2,655 students
41.4% poor
138 141 144 0% 0% 0.7%
Mason Public Schools (Ingham)
3,226 students
32.1% poor
184 187 192 0.5% 0.5% 0%
Grand Ledge Public Schools
5,328 students
28% poor
309 294 317 0.7% 1% 1.3%
East Lansing School District
3,607 students
33.9% poor
221 226 218 0% 0% 0.9%
Almont Community Schools
1,456 students
25.5% poor
75 77 81 1.3% 1.3% 1.2%
International Academy of Flint*
917 students
84.3% poor
63 50 54 24.2% 1.6% 27.5%
Midland Public Schools
7,642 students
33.2% poor
438 440 440 0.5% 0.2% 0.9%
Armada Area Schools
1,762 students
22% poor
89 94 90 0% 0% 0%
New Lothrop Area Public Schools
916 students
24.7% poor
52 46 46 0% 0% 4.3%
Bullock Creek School District
1,833 students
40% poor
111 108 118 0% 0% 0%
Vicksburg Community Schools
2,660 students
34.7% poor
155 155 160 0% 0% 0%
Yale Public Schools
1,912 students
41.1% poor
103 101 104 0% 0% 0%
Swan Valley School District
1,801 students
38.2% poor
94 98 101 1% 0% 0%
Mason Consolidated Schools (Monroe)
1,027 students
48.5% poor
69 66 65 0% 0% 0%
Oxford Community Schools
5,589 students
24.7% poor
312 316 337 0.9% 1.9% 0.9%
Harbor Springs School District
801 students
22.8% poor
58 57 59 0% 0% 0%
Public Schools of Petoskey
2,792 students
38.8% poor
155 153 158 0% 0% 0%
Crawford AuSable Schools
1,571 students
56.9% poor
106 107 108 0.9% 1.9% 1.9%
Keystone Academy*
779 students
37.4% poor
47 48 55 10.4% 2.1% 14.5%
Whiteford Agricultural School District of the Counties of Lenawee and Monroe
752 students
28.5% poor
39 44 45 0% 2.5% 6.6%
Plainwell Community Schools
2,780 students
29% poor
154 159 156 0% 0% 1.3%
North Muskegon Public Schools
1,047 students
26.9% poor
60 63 71 0% 1.7% 0%
Livonia Public Schools School District
14,184 students
33.8% poor
854 886 916 0.2% 0% 0.2%
Hancock Public Schools
701 students
47.6% poor
54 46 48 10.8% 1.9% 8.4%
Goodrich Area Schools
2,053 students
22.1% poor
99 108 111 0.9% 0% 0%
Chesaning Union Schools
1,447 students
52.4% poor
84 85 88 1.2% 0% 1.1%
Kingsley Area Schools
1,557 students
44.2% poor
77 78 81 1.3% 0% 0%
Chippewa Valley Schools
16,061 students
29.8% poor
850 836 855 1.2% 0.6% 0.9%
McBain Rural Agricultural Schools
1,028 students
47.8% poor
56 57 57 3.5% 1.8% 0%
St. Johns Public Schools
2,799 students
34.7% poor
160 154 157 0.7% 0.6% 0.6%
Elk Rapids Schools
1,264 students
36.9% poor
70 68 70 0% 0% 0%
Chatfield School*
486 students
26.1% poor
27 28 28 0% 0% 0%
Flagship Charter Academy*
698 students
98.1% poor
52 53 49 9.5% 1.9% 26.7%
Fowler Public Schools
480 students
27.1% poor
25 24 27 0% 0% 0%
Romeo Community Schools
5,042 students
24.7% poor
282 284 295 0.4% 0.7% 0.3%
Grand Traverse Academy*
896 students
25.8% poor
71 74 81 4% 0% 6.1%
Huron Valley Schools
8,987 students
27.3% poor
520 535 522 0.4% 0.4% 0.4%
Kingsbury Country Day School*
291 students
9.3% poor
19 19 25 10.5% 21.5% 4%
Royal Oak Schools
4,995 students
23.6% poor
320 328 353 0.3% 0.6% 0.6%
Johannesburg-Lewiston Area Schools
697 students
56.8% poor
40 41 42 0% 2.5% 0%
Sparta Area Schools
2,500 students
47.9% poor
141 144 146 2.1% 0% 0%
Honey Creek Community School*
242 students
9.1% poor
19 20 20 5.1% 0% 0%
Sigel Township S/D #4F
31 students
64.5% poor
1 1 2 0% 0% 0%
Lakewood Public Schools
1,778 students
45.7% poor
103 103 109 0% 0% 0%
Byron Center Charter School*
245 students
42.4% poor
23 19 21 0% 0% 0%
Public Schools of Calumet, Laurium & Keweenaw
1,519 students
54% poor
92 92 87 16.3% 1.1% 18.4%
Ovid-Elsie Area Schools
1,524 students
45.7% poor
74 76 84 0% 0% 0%
Farmington Public School District
9,539 students
26.2% poor
645 640 656 0.5% 0.3% 0.3%
Onekama Consolidated Schools
415 students
53.5% poor
23 27 25 11.2% 0% 24.1%
Michigan Educational Choice Center*
263 students
100% poor
72 40 8 90% 0% 125%
Utica Community Schools
26,894 students
38.1% poor
1,458 1,448 1,452 0.4% 0.2% 0.1%
Cass City Public Schools
968 students
51.7% poor
53 53 56 3.8% 0% 0%
Columbia School District
1,473 students
45.6% poor
81 83 82 0% 0% 0%
Black River Public School*
944 students
23.8% poor
74 73 73 0% 1.4% 0%
Verona Township S/D #1F
21 students
38.1% poor
1 2 1 0% 0% 0%
Linden Charter Academy*
791 students
98.1% poor
51 58 49 13.7% 7.9% 26.5%
Cadillac Area Public Schools
3,136 students
60.9% poor
161 164 165 0.6% 0.6% 0%
West Bloomfield School District
5,476 students
34.6% poor
322 335 361 0.3% 0.3% 0.6%
Traverse City Area Public Schools
9,433 students
36% poor
492 487 486 2.5% 2.2% 1.6%
Lakeview Public Schools (Macomb)
4,375 students
42.4% poor
225 227 236 0.4% 0% 1.3%
Boyne City Public Schools
1,349 students
49.4% poor
76 79 81 0% 0% 5%
Old Redford Academy*
1,784 students
75.9% poor
130 113 109 11.5% 3.1% 24%
Napoleon Community Schools
1,314 students
44.9% poor
68 71 72 0% 1.5% 0%
Hamtramck Academy*
537 students
98.3% poor
45 47 47 4.2% 2.2% 4.2%
Fairview Area School District
298 students
73.8% poor
18 18 22 0% 0% 4.6%
Birch Run Area Schools
1,871 students
51.6% poor
98 100 101 0% 0% 0%
Milan Area Schools
2,173 students
33.3% poor
130 126 130 0% 0% 0%
Davison Community Schools
5,723 students
44.3% poor
290 296 293 0% 0.3% 1%
Charlevoix Public Schools
872 students
43.9% poor
60 61 56 0% 0% 3.5%
Howell Public Schools
6,973 students
27.4% poor
404 402 385 0.2% 0.2% 0.8%
Vanderbilt Charter Academy*
463 students
73.9% poor
33 33 37 3% 0% 0%
West MI Academy of Arts and Academics*
439 students
39.9% poor
38 45 40 2.2% 5.3% 0%
Charlotte Public Schools
2,467 students
43.2% poor
154 139 149 0% 0.7% 0.7%
Whitehall District Schools
2,078 students
45.2% poor
165 165 171 2.4% 1.2% 0.6%
Stephenson Area Public Schools
490 students
55.3% poor
36 32 27 0% 0% 0%
Detroit Innovation Academy*
393 students
97.2% poor
15 13 17 23.1% 33.3% 23.5%
Bad Axe Public Schools
957 students
50.9% poor
55 55 54 0% 0% 0%
Sault Ste. Marie Area Schools
2,023 students
55.7% poor
126 134 142 3.7% 3.2% 2.8%
Thornapple Kellogg School District
3,157 students
33.9% poor
150 160 170 0.6% 0.7% 0%
Timbuktu Academy*
436 students
100% poor
17 14 11 21.4% 5.9% 100%
Marquette Area Public Schools
3,285 students
29.3% poor
206 206 225 0.5% 0% 0%
Blue Water Middle College*
391 students
19.2% poor
0 0 19 0% 0% 0%
Northview Public Schools
3,327 students
41.9% poor
239 232 223 0.4% 0% 0%
Ida Public School District
1,442 students
20.6% poor
80 74 76 0% 0% 0%
Breitung Township School District
1,893 students
43.1% poor
102 105 113 0.9% 1% 1.8%
Gull Lake Community Schools
3,231 students
23.8% poor
199 217 224 0% 0% 1.3%
Olivet Community Schools
1,413 students
37.1% poor
81 83 85 0% 0% 0%
Pathways Academy*
148 students
98.6% poor
4 4 5 0% 0% 100%
Mackinaw City Public Schools
153 students
47.1% poor
16 16 16 0% 0% 0%
Harbor Beach Community Schools
475 students
46.5% poor
32 31 34 0% 0% 0%
Triumph Academy*
728 students
54.9% poor
39 42 42 0% 0% 14.3%
Grand Blanc Community Schools
8,260 students
34.3% poor
444 451 486 0.2% 0.2% 0.8%
Nottawa Community School
116 students
31.9% poor
11 11 10 18.1% 0% 9.8%
Joseph K. Lumsden Bahweting Anishnabe Academy*
579 students
63% poor
55 52 58 1.9% 3.6% 12.1%
Madison School District (Lenawee)
1,652 students
57.8% poor
99 101 101 1% 1% 0%
Oakland Academy*
165 students
40.6% poor
22 18 11 0% 0% 0%
Grand Rapids Child Discovery Center*
272 students
45.2% poor
15 15 18 0% 0% 0%
Ludington Area School District
2,106 students
52.4% poor
115 120 119 0.8% 0.9% 0%
Grass Lake Community Schools
1,294 students
28.3% poor
78 76 80 0% 0% 1.3%
Gobles Public School District
772 students
58.3% poor
52 56 62 5.3% 5.8% 3.2%
West Branch-Rose City Area Schools
2,043 students
60.5% poor
122 122 129 0.8% 0.8% 6.2%
Portland Public Schools
2,119 students
32.7% poor
119 120 113 0% 0.8% 0%
North Dickinson County Schools
250 students
47.6% poor
16 19 17 10.8% 18.4% 5.8%
Elkton-Pigeon-Bay Port Laker Schools
914 students
51% poor
53 54 56 9.3% 5.6% 5.4%
Cedar Springs Public Schools
3,516 students
41.2% poor
183 196 198 0% 0.5% 0%
East China School District
4,102 students
32.8% poor
237 237 245 1.3% 0.4% 0.4%
Universal Academy*
728 students
98.4% poor
43 41 33 56.3% 35.3% 91.1%
Negaunee Public Schools
1,583 students
33.2% poor
100 99 98 0% 0% 0%
South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy*
757 students
51.8% poor
51 54 54 3.7% 0% 16.6%
Concord Academy - Boyne*
158 students
44.3% poor
16 18 17 0% 0% 11.9%
Tawas Area Schools
1,248 students
52.1% poor
67 67 71 0% 0% 0%
Greenville Public Schools
3,729 students
56.7% poor
212 220 215 2.3% 2.8% 1.9%
NICE Community School District
1,197 students
35.9% poor
80 82 81 0% 0% 0%
West Ottawa Public School District
6,712 students
55% poor
421 419 419 0.5% 0.2% 0.5%
Chassell Township School District
263 students
35.7% poor
16 17 19 5.9% 12.5% 5.4%
Blissfield Community Schools
1,209 students
36.9% poor
61 63 72 0% 0% 0%
Greater Heights Academy*
262 students
97.3% poor
18 18 23 34.1% 22.3% 22.1%
Byron Area Schools
835 students
37.2% poor
51 48 44 0% 0% 2.3%
Muskegon Montessori Academy for Environmental Change*
148 students
74.3% poor
7 8 9 0% 0% 0%
Fraser Public Schools
4,978 students
45.4% poor
292 293 292 0% 0% 0.3%
Gaylord Community Schools
3,054 students
52.9% poor
162 161 168 0% 0.6% 0%
DeTour Arts and Technology Academy*
82 students
58.5% poor
6 12 16 0% 0% 0%
North Central Area Schools
336 students
56% poor
24 25 26 0% 0% 0%
Woodhaven-Brownstown School District
5,485 students
45.2% poor
320 343 325 0.3% 0% 0%
Avondale School District
3,779 students
45.1% poor
213 238 277 2.1% 1.4% 2.2%
Crossroads Charter Academy*
595 students
57.1% poor
46 44 45 6.8% 2.2% 4.4%
Detroit Edison Public School Academy*
1,287 students
66.5% poor
61 75 59 4% 4.9% 17.1%
Lapeer Community Schools
4,942 students
50.4% poor
283 267 273 0% 0% 0%
Western School District
2,952 students
36.9% poor
157 161 160 0% 0% 0%
Croswell-Lexington Community Schools
2,148 students
52.4% poor
115 111 111 0% 3.5% 2.7%
Bath Community Schools
1,155 students
45.7% poor
60 63 58 0% 0% 0%
River Valley School District
578 students
56.9% poor
46 48 53 2.1% 0% 1.9%
Lake Fenton Community Schools
2,078 students
28.9% poor
104 108 114 0% 1% 0.9%
Hanover-Horton School District
1,135 students
36.7% poor
54 55 56 0% 0% 1.8%
Fenton Area Public Schools
3,448 students
32.6% poor
191 195 197 0% 0% 0%
Bangor Township S/D #8
21 students
61.9% poor
2 2 2 0% 0% 0%
Flushing Community Schools
4,182 students
41.8% poor
228 227 225 0% 0% 0%
L'Anse Creuse Public Schools
10,392 students
41.9% poor
555 550 563 0.5% 0.2% 1.2%
Fortis Academy*
745 students
79.1% poor
51 46 47 0% 2% 12.6%
Algonac Community School District
1,475 students
45.8% poor
85 80 78 0% 0% 0%
Tecumseh Public Schools
2,784 students
34.1% poor
163 176 170 0.6% 0% 0%
Holly Area School District
3,307 students
42% poor
197 200 210 0% 0.5% 0%
Mona Shores Public School District
3,895 students
48.2% poor
219 220 221 0.5% 0% 0.5%
Buchanan Community Schools
1,573 students
53.3% poor
96 100 103 0% 0% 0%
Mt. Clemens Montessori Academy*
326 students
37.4% poor
26 25 21 4% 0% 4.7%
North Branch Area Schools
2,353 students
47.4% poor
133 126 129 0% 0.8% 3.1%
Stockbridge Community Schools
1,249 students
40.8% poor
82 92 92 0% 1.2% 3.3%
Memphis Community Schools
836 students
33.6% poor
51 57 56 0% 0% 0%
Clawson Public Schools
1,556 students
38% poor
115 124 118 0% 0.9% 0.8%
Martin Public Schools
613 students
54.3% poor
39 41 40 2.4% 2.5% 2.5%
Laingsburg Community Schools
1,125 students
27.4% poor
60 59 63 0% 3.3% 3.2%
Lake Linden-Hubbell School District
409 students
58.4% poor
37 35 34 5.7% 0% 0%
Ionia Public Schools
3,017 students
57.3% poor
169 166 159 0% 0% 0%
Lakeside Charter School - Kalamazoo*
244 students
99.6% poor
13 10 19 0% 0% 21.6%
Hastings Area School District
2,659 students
48.1% poor
144 149 140 0% 0.7% 0%
Leland Public School District
522 students
37% poor
36 41 48 0% 0% 0%
Ridge Park Charter Academy*
562 students
84.2% poor
45 47 42 0% 0% 0%
Light of the World Academy*
232 students
15.5% poor
10 13 17 0% 0% 0%
East Arbor Charter Academy*
694 students
53.2% poor
55 55 57 1.8% 3.7% 10.5%
Forest Park School District
440 students
53% poor
28 30 34 0% 0% 0%
Roscommon Area Public Schools
927 students
61.2% poor
65 69 66 1.5% 0% 0%
Kent City Community Schools
1,296 students
60.4% poor
73 84 87 0% 0% 0%
Paragon Charter Academy*
678 students
62.1% poor
42 42 41 7.2% 7.1% 2.4%
Bellaire Public Schools
356 students
44.7% poor
24 29 29 0% 0% 0%
Ubly Community Schools
651 students
45.9% poor
43 41 40 2.5% 0% 2.5%
Lighthouse Connections Academy*
274 students
73% poor
0 0 8 0% 0% 0%
Saginaw Township Community Schools
4,803 students
47.9% poor
272 275 281 0.4% 0% 0.7%
Manistique Area Schools
816 students
56.5% poor
50 48 52 4.2% 0% 3.9%
Reeths-Puffer Schools
3,710 students
45.7% poor
228 230 230 0% 0% 0.9%
Vista Meadows Academy*
100 students
100% poor
11 6 9 50% 0% 78.2%
St. Charles Community Schools
913 students
51.2% poor
47 63 62 0% 0% 0%
Holt Public Schools
5,532 students
43.6% poor
333 329 333 0% 0% 0%
Taylor Exemplar Academy*
792 students
71% poor
52 51 57 3.9% 1.9% 7%
Dansville Schools
730 students
31.2% poor
44 40 41 0% 2.3% 2.4%
Mt. Pleasant City School District
3,485 students
43.7% poor
270 264 268 0.8% 1.1% 0%
Clinton Community Schools
1,221 students
35% poor
65 61 73 0% 0% 1.4%
Knapp Charter Academy*
745 students
68.9% poor
44 43 50 2.3% 0% 4%
Hemlock Public School District
1,213 students
32.3% poor
70 69 67 4.4% 0% 4.5%
Kentwood Public Schools
9,284 students
72.7% poor
504 566 586 0% 0% 0.3%
Iron Mountain Public Schools
883 students
48.9% poor
45 46 50 6.5% 8.8% 6.1%
Central Academy*
605 students
90.4% poor
34 35 35 17.1% 14.6% 20.1%
Leslie Public Schools
1,233 students
51.2% poor
87 81 81 0% 1.1% 0%
Sand Creek Community Schools
842 students
44.9% poor
50 58 60 0% 0% 1.7%
Bangor Township Schools
2,541 students
58.3% poor
123 126 129 0% 0% 0%
Summerfield Schools
625 students
31.4% poor
38 35 38 0% 0% 0%
Posen Consolidated School District No. 9
213 students
59.6% poor
16 14 17 29% 19.4% 17.9%
Marshall Public Schools
2,793 students
44.6% poor
177 189 190 0% 0% 0%
Montrose Community Schools
1,472 students
60.3% poor
81 82 79 0% 1.2% 0%
Gladstone Area Schools
1,538 students
40.8% poor
78 78 83 0% 0% 0%
Three Rivers Community Schools
2,564 students
56.4% poor
152 157 156 0.6% 1.3% 1.3%
Creative Technologies Academy*
318 students
37.7% poor
22 22 22 4.6% 4.5% 4.5%
Durand Area Schools
1,316 students
54.9% poor
85 89 89 0% 0% 0%
Bessemer Area School District
408 students
59.1% poor
26 27 32 14.6% 3.8% 15.8%
Brown City Community Schools
778 students
58.1% poor
46 44 46 0% 0% 0%
Kenowa Hills Public Schools
3,137 students
49.4% poor
179 178 189 0% 0.6% 0%
Lawton Community School District
978 students
55.7% poor
62 63 62 0% 0% 0%
Concord Academy - Petoskey*
180 students
53.9% poor
15 16 17 12.6% 0% 5.8%
Berrien Springs Public Schools
3,832 students
68.3% poor
168 191 185 0.5% 0% 0%
Livingston Classical Academy*
210 students
13.8% poor
10 16 13 6.3% 20.2% 7.7%
Beal City Public Schools
684 students
29.4% poor
40 41 44 0% 0% 2.3%
Meridian Public Schools
1,306 students
47.4% poor
80 83 77 1.2% 0% 0%
Clare Public Schools
1,614 students
50.4% poor
91 87 86 0% 0% 1.2%
Garden City Public Schools
3,701 students
60.7% poor
274 286 309 0.3% 1.1% 3.6%
Four Corners Montessori Academy*
441 students
35.4% poor
24 27 25 0% 0% 8.1%
Richmond Community Schools
1,432 students
33.7% poor
82 89 86 0% 1.2% 0%
Ontonagon Area School District
275 students
52% poor
19 18 17 11.3% 5.4% 18.1%
ICademy Global*
204 students
33.8% poor
14 13 13 0% 0% 0%
Ann Arbor Learning Community*
209 students
77.5% poor
14 11 10 0% 13.9% 0%
Mar Lee School District
303 students
51.5% poor
21 20 24 0% 0% 4.2%
Clio Area School District
2,918 students
53.5% poor
152 152 157 0% 0% 1.3%
The Greenspire School*
134 students
39.6% poor
6 7 8 0% 0% 0%
Glenn Public School District
37 students
51.4% poor
3 4 5 0% 33.6% 0%
New Bedford Academy*
105 students
44.8% poor
9 9 6 0% 0% 0%
Michigan Connections Academy*
1,722 students
57.3% poor
68 72 74 1.4% 1.5% 2.7%
Cheboygan Area Schools
1,563 students
61.2% poor
96 97 97 0% 0% 1%
Marlette Community Schools
768 students
54.2% poor
48 49 52 0% 0% 0%
Fulton Schools
675 students
53% poor
49 48 49 0% 0% 0%
Allen Park Public Schools
3,829 students
38.2% poor
202 204 209 0.5% 0% 0%
Laurus Academy*
744 students
73.4% poor
50 51 47 11.7% 5.9% 12.7%
Ithaca Public Schools
1,085 students
44.6% poor
73 70 79 0% 0% 0%
Gladwin Community Schools
1,680 students
57.7% poor
86 91 87 0% 0% 1.1%
Standish-Sterling Community Schools
1,579 students
55.9% poor
74 74 72 0% 2.7% 0%
Brandon School District in the Counties of Oakland and Lapeer
2,380 students
38.3% poor
157 151 150 0% 0% 0.7%
Essexville-Hampton Public Schools
1,717 students
30.3% poor
81 87 90 1.2% 1.2% 1.1%
Alcona Community Schools
686 students
67.6% poor
39 40 42 0% 0% 9.6%
Menominee Area Public Schools
1,307 students
53.9% poor
85 89 91 0% 2.4% 5.5%
Gibraltar School District
3,678 students
31.2% poor
191 195 201 0.5% 0% 0%
Lake Shore Public Schools (Macomb)
3,493 students
48% poor
226 215 214 0% 0% 0.5%
Riverview Community School District
2,873 students
45.3% poor
138 140 148 0% 1.5% 0.7%
Jefferson Schools (Monroe)
1,593 students
41.2% poor
100 97 88 0% 0% 0%
Windemere Park Charter Academy*
637 students
74.9% poor
44 57 53 3.5% 4.5% 13.1%
Stanton Township Public Schools
172 students
64.5% poor
9 9 9 0% 0% 0%
Niles Community Schools
3,654 students
57.9% poor
216 206 217 3.4% 0.9% 8.7%
Britton Deerfield Schools
533 students
51.4% poor
44 37 33 0% 0% 9.1%
Flex High School of Michigan*
29 students
100% poor
0 0 3 0% 0% 0%
Imlay City Community Schools
2,018 students
55.9% poor
100 108 113 0% 0% 0%
Perry Public Schools
1,092 students
45.6% poor
74 64 71 0% 0% 1.4%
Fruitport Community Schools
2,718 students
55.8% poor
171 167 180 0% 0% 0%
Holland City School District
3,364 students
64.5% poor
271 263 257 0.8% 0.4% 0.8%
Pinckney Community Schools
2,602 students
20% poor
173 166 167 0% 0.6% 1.2%
Fowlerville Community Schools
2,802 students
38.8% poor
153 152 166 0.7% 0% 0.6%
Au Gres-Sims School District
399 students
62.7% poor
26 23 26 0% 0% 0%
Manton Consolidated Schools
952 students
58.7% poor
60 56 57 1.8% 0% 1.8%
Lakeview Sch. District (Calhoun)
4,075 students
54.9% poor
228 242 235 0% 0.4% 0.4%
Grand River Academy*
788 students
57.6% poor
53 57 54 8.8% 3.8% 18.4%
Pinconning Area Schools
1,267 students
53.7% poor
70 72 73 1.4% 1.4% 1.4%
Saranac Community Schools
920 students
42.6% poor
56 56 58 0% 1.8% 0%
Onsted Community Schools
1,294 students
37.7% poor
78 82 77 0% 0% 0%
Sodus Township S/D #5
73 students
83.6% poor
8 6 5 0% 0% 0%
Mancelona Public Schools
936 students
71.3% poor
56 57 53 8.8% 3.6% 5.7%
Big Rapids Public Schools
2,061 students
51.5% poor
97 95 98 0% 3.1% 1%
Buckley Community Schools
409 students
49.1% poor
27 33 32 12.2% 3.7% 6.3%
Centreville Public Schools
844 students
46.3% poor
48 54 49 0% 0% 2%
Shepherd Public Schools
1,811 students
47.2% poor
106 106 109 0% 0% 1.8%
Quincy Community Schools
1,215 students
49.9% poor
65 67 60 1.5% 3.1% 1.7%
Bronson Community School District
1,049 students
57.8% poor
54 56 57 1.8% 1.8% 0%
Kingston Community School District
595 students
56.6% poor
34 35 37 0% 0% 5.5%
Eaton Rapids Public Schools
2,296 students
55.3% poor
142 148 146 1.4% 0.7% 2%
Distinctive College Prep.*
465 students
89.7% poor
0 16 34 0% 0% 0%
Bark River-Harris School District
743 students
50.1% poor
39 40 41 0% 0% 0%
Norway-Vulcan Area Schools
686 students
45.9% poor
35 36 37 0% 0% 2.7%
Jackson Preparatory & Early College*
384 students
34.4% poor
19 17 19 5.8% 0% 0%
Detroit Service Learning Academy*
1,350 students
99.5% poor
85 74 61 16.2% 2.4% 76.6%
West Iron County Public Schools
831 students
69.3% poor
51 55 58 0% 0% 0%
Sandusky Community School District
1,017 students
50.6% poor
58 61 65 0% 0% 0%
Paw Paw Public School District
2,155 students
44.6% poor
126 126 119 0.8% 0% 0%
Tipton Academy*
508 students
69.9% poor
33 33 38 0% 0% 18.7%
Genesee School District
669 students
85.4% poor
39 38 38 0% 0% 2.6%
Hale Area Schools
342 students
74.6% poor
23 23 23 4.4% 4.4% 0%
Constantine Public School District
1,449 students
56.6% poor
71 76 89 2.6% 0% 1.1%
Leelanau Montessori Public School Academy*
64 students
54.7% poor
5 6 7 17.2% 0% 14.3%
Unionville-Sebewaing Area S.D.
715 students
42.9% poor
38 41 46 0% 0% 0%
Escanaba Area Public Schools
2,329 students
54.9% poor
127 132 136 0% 0% 0.7%
Branch Line School*
142 students
43.7% poor
11 10 14 0% 0% 7%
Waterford School District
8,542 students
59.5% poor
627 638 662 0.2% 0.6% 0%
Alma Public Schools
2,095 students
56.9% poor
128 126 135 0% 0.8% 0%
Superior Central School District
335 students
59.1% poor
21 25 28 0% 0% 0%
Parchment School District
1,603 students
54.1% poor
95 96 99 3.1% 0% 5%
St. Ignace Area Schools
511 students
53.2% poor
31 31 29 9.6% 3.2% 17.4%
Lamphere Public Schools
2,484 students
50.6% poor
184 185 182 2.2% 2.2% 1.6%
Swartz Creek Community Schools
3,636 students
53.7% poor
208 212 209 0% 0% 0.5%
New Paradigm College Prep*
83 students
100% poor
6 8 5 0% 0% 0%
Dearborn City School District
20,740 students
75.8% poor
1,369 1,509 1,548 3.6% 4.5% 6.7%
Chippewa Hills School District
1,959 students
60.3% poor
105 104 106 1% 0% 0.9%
Ellsworth Community School
256 students
54.3% poor
19 17 19 23.1% 15.8% 10.6%
Eagle's Nest Academy*
187 students
92.5% poor
16 18 9 0% 6.3% 66.7%
Crestwood School District
3,966 students
76.4% poor
217 224 241 0% 0% 0.4%
Benton Harbor Charter School Academy*
520 students
89.4% poor
28 29 26 10.3% 0% 62.3%
Caro Community Schools
1,677 students
58.4% poor
88 93 93 1.1% 0% 0%
Oakland International Academy*
852 students
99.2% poor
66 62 52 8.1% 1.5% 13.5%
New Haven Community Schools
1,260 students
52.1% poor
80 74 74 2.7% 1.2% 1.4%
Montague Area Public Schools
1,514 students
49.7% poor
90 89 95 1.1% 1.1% 3.2%
Metro Charter Academy*
726 students
74.8% poor
54 55 51 1.8% 3.7% 11.7%
Lawrence Public Schools
570 students
64.6% poor
33 36 36 11.1% 0% 5.6%
Bay City School District
7,504 students
52.5% poor
435 435 442 0.5% 0.2% 0.7%
South Arbor Charter Academy*
796 students
22.5% poor
43 53 53 1.9% 0% 3.7%
Ionia Township S/D #2
11 students
45.5% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Huron School District
2,581 students
33.9% poor
157 153 166 1.3% 0% 0%
Creative Montessori Academy*
765 students
59.2% poor
38 36 40 2.8% 0% 2.5%
Warren Consolidated Schools
13,767 students
64.7% poor
815 810 784 1.6% 0.5% 0.5%
Potterville Public Schools
865 students
44.3% poor
61 57 53 0% 0% 0%
Manchester Community Schools
926 students
22.5% poor
57 59 58 0% 0% 0%
Joy Preparatory Academy*
356 students
99.7% poor
25 15 26 108.3% 43.2% 62.3%
Deckerville Community School District
614 students
65% poor
40 42 52 0% 0% 0%
Onaway Area Community School District
604 students
56.8% poor
35 34 35 0% 0% 8.6%
Rogers City Area Schools
528 students
56.4% poor
35 32 34 0% 0% 0%
Lakeview Community Schools (Montcalm)
1,123 students
54.9% poor
72 74 72 2.7% 0% 0%
Alpena Public Schools
3,753 students
58% poor
201 195 200 3.6% 1% 1.5%
Wyandotte, School District of the City of
4,792 students
57.9% poor
321 320 338 0% 0.3% 0.6%
Decatur Public Schools
740 students
67% poor
49 49 47 0% 0% 0%
Benzie County Central Schools
1,414 students
59.5% poor
84 88 82 0% 0% 4.9%
Augusta Academy*
32 students
59.4% poor
4 3 5 0% 0% 0%
Corunna Public Schools
1,811 students
53.8% poor
106 98 99 0% 0.9% 2%
Fremont Public School District
2,139 students
52.9% poor
119 115 119 0.9% 0% 0.8%
Allegan Public Schools
2,423 students
56.5% poor
150 144 151 0% 0% 0%
Pine River Area Schools
1,070 students
56.7% poor
62 62 60 0% 0% 0%
Airport Community Schools
2,633 students
52.9% poor
148 150 149 0% 0.7% 0%
Mason County Eastern Schools
437 students
76.7% poor
32 28 26 7.2% 3.2% 3.8%
Warren Woods Public Schools
3,244 students
58.3% poor
207 215 222 1.9% 0.5% 1.3%
Comstock Park Public Schools
1,890 students
57.5% poor
123 114 111 0.9% 0% 0%
Breckenridge Community Schools
668 students
54.6% poor
43 43 42 2.3% 2.3% 7.1%
Oakridge Public Schools
2,042 students
63.6% poor
123 121 133 0% 0% 2.3%
Grant Public School District
1,799 students
57.2% poor
95 94 94 5.3% 0% 3.2%
Akron-Fairgrove Schools
314 students
75.2% poor
21 18 20 5.7% 0% 5%
Millington Community Schools
1,197 students
57.6% poor
65 70 76 2.9% 1.5% 0%
Webberville Community Schools
524 students
54.4% poor
36 38 34 2.7% 2.8% 3%
Camden-Frontier School
504 students
58.7% poor
32 31 32 3.2% 0% 6.3%
Ewen-Trout Creek Consolidated School District
191 students
55.5% poor
16 17 16 12% 12.2% 12.4%
Woodland School*
214 students
15.9% poor
11 12 12 0% 0% 0%
L'Anse Area Schools
605 students
63.1% poor
47 44 46 0% 0% 4.4%
Pellston Public Schools
495 students
69.9% poor
32 30 36 0% 0% 8.4%
Dollar Bay-Tamarack City Area K-12 School
337 students
51.9% poor
21 20 22 5.1% 9.4% 18.5%
St. Louis Public Schools
1,043 students
68.1% poor
65 64 69 0% 0% 0%
Whitmore Lake Public School District
749 students
42.1% poor
63 63 55 0% 0% 0%
Harper Creek Community Schools
2,828 students
41% poor
162 166 167 0.6% 1.9% 2.4%
Munising Public Schools
657 students
54.5% poor
38 41 40 0% 0% 0%
Reese Public Schools
805 students
51.1% poor
46 45 44 0% 0% 4.6%
Coldwater Community Schools
2,799 students
59.6% poor
140 147 153 0.7% 0% 0%
Tahquamenon Area Schools
599 students
59.9% poor
38 41 39 12.3% 13.2% 12.7%
Brimley Area Schools
536 students
59.1% poor
34 35 40 14.4% 5.9% 5%
Ironwood Area Schools of Gogebic County
765 students
56.9% poor
52 54 54 3.7% 3.9% 9.3%
Vista Charter Academy*
702 students
93.7% poor
53 50 55 0% 0% 5.5%
Excelsior Township S/D #1
50 students
66% poor
4 3 3 0% 0% 0%
Bear Lake Schools
284 students
64.4% poor
15 14 14 7.2% 6.8% 0%
Farwell Area Schools
1,158 students
61.2% poor
71 64 65 0% 0% 3.1%
Capac Community Schools
889 students
51.9% poor
59 51 68 0% 0% 0%
Manistee Area Public Schools
1,399 students
54% poor
80 73 79 0% 0% 0%
Canton Charter Academy*
749 students
18.8% poor
39 41 42 2.4% 0% 9.6%
Morenci Area Schools
650 students
62.5% poor
45 47 46 4.3% 0% 4.3%
Northwest Community Schools
3,558 students
62.3% poor
183 191 200 0.5% 0.5% 2.5%
Holton Public Schools
837 students
70.6% poor
48 48 49 2.1% 4.1% 8.2%
Tri County Area Schools
1,906 students
58.6% poor
110 110 110 0% 0% 0%
Cross Creek Charter Academy*
781 students
32.5% poor
48 47 43 0% 2.1% 2.3%
Union City Community Schools
1,040 students
56.9% poor
68 63 61 0% 0% 1.6%
Ravenna Public Schools
1,048 students
49.3% poor
65 65 65 0% 0% 0%
South Haven Public Schools
1,987 students
61.3% poor
139 121 115 0.8% 0% 0.9%
DeTour Area Schools
96 students
53.1% poor
12 10 9 0% 0% 0%
Hanley International Academy*
647 students
94.6% poor
40 40 42 0% 0% 7.2%
Huron Academy*
620 students
61% poor
39 42 45 9.6% 2.6% 6.7%
Great Oaks Academy*
734 students
93.2% poor
46 50 47 6% 2.2% 12.8%
Suttons Bay Public Schools
612 students
57.2% poor
30 29 37 17.4% 6.8% 5.3%
Adams Township School District
480 students
51.5% poor
27 28 29 0% 3.7% 0%
Godwin Heights Public Schools
2,076 students
89.4% poor
147 143 133 0% 0.7% 0%
Waverly Community Schools
3,009 students
62.3% poor
170 189 192 1.1% 1.2% 0%
AuTrain-Onota Public Schools
38 students
63.2% poor
5 5 5 0% 20.8% 0%
Ferndale Public Schools
3,099 students
60.7% poor
184 178 180 0.6% 0% 0.6%
East Jordan Public Schools
861 students
53.3% poor
49 51 52 0% 0% 0%
Clarenceville School District
1,858 students
63.7% poor
113 114 124 1.8% 0% 0%
Maple Valley Schools
987 students
53.5% poor
63 63 64 0% 0% 0%
Southgate Community School District
3,526 students
51.7% poor
256 258 246 1.9% 2.7% 2%
Kearsley Community School District
2,898 students
70.2% poor
161 166 170 0% 0% 0%
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD)*
1,479 students
69.2% poor
101 103 104 6.8% 1% 9.6%
Michigan Center School District
1,400 students
50.6% poor
84 80 79 1.3% 0% 1.3%
Oscoda Area Schools
1,146 students
70% poor
71 73 81 0% 0% 1.2%
Newaygo Public School District
1,562 students
65.9% poor
80 87 80 0% 0% 0%
North Star Academy*
267 students
58.4% poor
25 25 23 0% 0% 8.9%
Colon Community School District
550 students
54.7% poor
38 41 40 2.5% 0% 5.1%
Vassar Public Schools
1,088 students
71.2% poor
63 60 62 3.3% 1.6% 1.6%
Delton Kellogg Schools
1,246 students
54% poor
66 63 65 0% 0% 0%
Adrian Public Schools
2,837 students
63.6% poor
179 175 176 1.1% 0% 0.6%
Rudyard Area Schools
614 students
71.5% poor
40 43 41 0% 4.9% 2.4%
Kalamazoo Public Schools
12,777 students
71.2% poor
808 824 816 0.8% 0.7% 1%
Mesick Consolidated Schools
654 students
70.5% poor
38 36 39 0% 0% 0%
Marcellus Community Schools
705 students
64.8% poor
39 39 42 2.5% 0% 0%
Morrice Area Schools
511 students
48.7% poor
39 32 36 6.3% 0% 0%
Concord Community Schools
667 students
58.8% poor
42 45 42 0% 0% 0%
The James and Grace Lee Boggs School*
137 students
75.2% poor
4 6 7 0% 0% 61.5%
Houghton Lake Community Schools
1,249 students
76.8% poor
97 108 103 0.9% 0% 1.9%
Engadine Consolidated Schools
359 students
69.9% poor
19 25 22 20% 10.4% 9%
Landmark Academy*
775 students
67.7% poor
56 57 60 17.6% 9% 11.6%
Boyne Falls Public School District
196 students
65.3% poor
16 16 17 0% 0% 0%
Reach Charter Academy*
652 students
91.3% poor
59 58 49 1.7% 0% 6.1%
Sturgis Public Schools
3,255 students
60.2% poor
181 183 186 2.7% 1.1% 0%
Mendon Community School District
510 students
52.5% poor
36 37 34 0% 2.8% 5.8%
Vestaburg Community Schools
717 students
57.2% poor
41 46 48 0% 0% 2.1%
Jonesville Community Schools
1,446 students
52.6% poor
84 84 83 0% 0% 4.8%
Pennfield Schools
2,083 students
50.1% poor
132 126 129 0% 0% 0%
Easton Township S/D #6
24 students
29.2% poor
2 2 4 0% 0% 0%
Mio-AuSable Schools
533 students
73.4% poor
34 31 34 6.4% 2.9% 5.9%
Cassopolis Public Schools
957 students
60.7% poor
54 53 50 7.6% 11.1% 6.1%
Addison Community Schools
830 students
55.8% poor
45 47 50 2.1% 2.2% 2%
Coleman Community Schools
675 students
63.6% poor
42 39 43 2.6% 0% 0%
North Huron School District
367 students
53.1% poor
31 28 25 0% 0% 0%
White Pigeon Community Schools
755 students
58.4% poor
46 50 52 0% 0% 1.9%
Galesburg-Augusta Community Schools
1,036 students
56.8% poor
64 62 77 0% 3.1% 0%
Reed City Area Public Schools
1,494 students
53.2% poor
96 95 88 0% 1% 0%
Flat Rock Community Schools
2,044 students
43.4% poor
101 106 114 0% 0% 0%
Eagle Crest Charter Academy*
723 students
50.5% poor
51 48 48 0% 2% 0%
Northridge Academy*
198 students
100% poor
27 26 17 7.8% 0% 6%
Wyoming Public Schools
4,152 students
80.6% poor
247 249 246 0% 0.8% 0.4%
Hart Public School District
1,353 students
71.7% poor
82 86 83 0% 0% 1.2%
Carsonville-Port Sanilac School District
348 students
61.5% poor
23 24 23 4.2% 0% 0%
Forest Area Community Schools
518 students
73.9% poor
38 37 32 2.7% 5.2% 0%
Harrison Community Schools
1,418 students
78.1% poor
76 78 79 0% 1.3% 2.5%
Athens Area Schools
552 students
46% poor
37 40 40 0% 0% 0%
Detroit Public Safety Academy*
286 students
95.1% poor
12 10 20 78.4% 41% 60%
Kalkaska Public Schools
1,472 students
65.1% poor
100 98 103 1% 1% 2.9%
Springport Public Schools
984 students
61.7% poor
60 59 61 0% 0% 0%
Belding Area School District
1,777 students
56.7% poor
102 100 98 0% 0% 0%
Monroe Public Schools
5,232 students
60.7% poor
302 291 302 1.7% 0.7% 1.3%
Baraga Area Schools
348 students
56% poor
31 28 33 7.2% 0% 3.1%
Morley Stanwood Community Schools
1,163 students
68.5% poor
62 72 66 1.4% 0% 0%
Peck Community School District
349 students
60.5% poor
19 20 17 0% 0% 11.5%
Beaverton Rural Schools
991 students
53.3% poor
65 64 63 0% 0% 0%
Northport Public School District
141 students
65.2% poor
19 22 24 4.6% 16% 8.5%
Marshall Academy*
272 students
57.7% poor
22 25 19 4.1% 18.5% 10.7%
Ishpeming Public School District No. 1
760 students
54.9% poor
49 50 54 0% 0% 1.9%
Madison District Public Schools
1,509 students
69.6% poor
95 93 86 0% 0% 0%
Brandywine Community Schools
1,334 students
63% poor
77 80 83 0% 1.3% 0%
Watervliet School District
1,502 students
63.9% poor
86 83 83 0% 0% 0%
Noor International Academy*
154 students
66.2% poor
15 17 11 5.8% 0% 18.2%
Mayville Community School District
596 students
73.5% poor
36 32 32 3.2% 2.8% 0%
Montabella Community Schools
765 students
59.7% poor
64 60 54 0% 1.6% 0%
Coloma Community Schools
1,341 students
73.9% poor
88 93 88 0% 0% 3.4%
South Lake Schools
1,619 students
66.8% poor
108 111 115 0.9% 1.8% 2.6%
Gwinn Area Community Schools
1,071 students
69% poor
75 72 72 1.4% 2.7% 0%
Kaleva Norman Dickson School District
516 students
75.8% poor
27 28 31 3.5% 7.3% 3.2%
Carson City-Crystal Area Schools
941 students
57.9% poor
55 53 54 0% 0% 1.9%
Wakefield-Marenisco School District
286 students
55.2% poor
20 21 21 0% 5.1% 4.7%
Warrendale Charter Academy*
753 students
98.3% poor
51 55 50 5.5% 5.9% 10.1%
Detroit Enterprise Academy*
738 students
96.1% poor
43 46 55 6.6% 6.9% 10.9%
LakeVille Community School District
1,149 students
58.2% poor
71 71 79 1.4% 0% 0%
Cornerstone Jefferson-Douglass Academy*
635 students
87.2% poor
0 18 16 0% 0% 0%
Madison Academy*
414 students
86% poor
71 72 77 6.9% 2.8% 3.9%
Mason County Central Schools
1,327 students
61.8% poor
61 66 67 0% 1.6% 0%
Dryden Community Schools
454 students
41% poor
32 32 29 0% 0% 0%
Hudson Area Schools
1,133 students
62.3% poor
56 58 59 1.7% 3.6% 0%
Owosso Public Schools
3,114 students
60.5% poor
170 179 172 0% 0.6% 0.6%
Southfield Public School District
5,768 students
56.4% poor
435 430 444 0.5% 0% 0%
Michigan Virtual Charter Academy*
2,919 students
79.1% poor
158 149 173 0.7% 0% 0%
Carrollton Public Schools
1,835 students
78.6% poor
150 155 163 6.5% 6.7% 6.8%
Comstock Public Schools
1,780 students
69% poor
122 122 136 0.8% 0% 0%
Pickford Public Schools
409 students
42.3% poor
30 24 26 0% 0% 0%
Port Huron Area School District
8,194 students
55.7% poor
536 530 533 0.6% 0.2% 0.2%
Wolverine Community School District
272 students
80.5% poor
18 16 18 12.5% 0% 0%
Merrill Community Schools
581 students
57% poor
37 40 36 0% 0% 2.8%
George Crockett Academy*
411 students
100% poor
26 21 24 37.9% 11.6% 54.4%
Climax-Scotts Community Schools
500 students
53.2% poor
35 37 36 0% 0% 0%
Carman-Ainsworth Community Schools
4,708 students
81.7% poor
251 259 281 0.4% 0.4% 0.7%
Carney-Nadeau Public Schools
287 students
64.1% poor
22 23 20 13.1% 8.9% 14.8%
Ojibwe Charter School*
100 students
82% poor
14 15 13 19.5% 14.3% 52.2%
Hillsdale Community Schools
1,353 students
58.9% poor
79 86 81 0% 0% 1.2%
Central Montcalm Public Schools
1,513 students
67.3% poor
101 99 98 1% 0% 1%
Lake City Area School District
1,166 students
65.7% poor
69 67 69 1.5% 0% 2.9%
Lincoln Consolidated School District
3,691 students
46.7% poor
221 234 241 0% 0.9% 0%
Whittemore-Prescott Area Schools
747 students
85.7% poor
49 48 48 2.1% 6.1% 2.1%
Pembroke Academy*
244 students
93% poor
0 0 24 0% 0% 0%
Atlanta Community Schools
239 students
65.7% poor
16 15 16 0% 0% 0%
Forest Academy*
167 students
73.7% poor
21 17 15 0% 0% 0%
David Ellis Academy West*
743 students
69.2% poor
50 48 45 8.4% 2% 15.5%
AGBU Alex-Marie Manoogian School*
399 students
55.4% poor
28 28 28 7.2% 7.2% 7.2%
Saginaw Learn to Earn Academy*
140 students
98.6% poor
8 6 8 50% 13.3% 50%
Saginaw, School District of the City of
5,452 students
80.5% poor
374 375 374 1.6% 0% 5.1%
Bois Blanc Pines School District
2 students
50% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Holly Academy*
645 students
20.5% poor
52 49 50 0% 0% 0%
Moran Township School District
86 students
60.5% poor
5 7 7 0% 0% 0%
Voyageur Academy*
1,149 students
95.7% poor
53 67 59 7.4% 22.7% 49.2%
Island City Academy*
204 students
27.9% poor
14 13 14 8% 0% 14%
American Montessori Academy*
486 students
65.4% poor
32 31 30 13.1% 9.3% 6.8%
Tekonsha Community Schools
243 students
61.3% poor
16 15 17 0% 0% 0%
Academy for Business and Technology*
519 students
88.8% poor
46 39 37 46.5% 8.7% 48.5%
White Pine Academy*
75 students
50.7% poor
7 11 7 0% 0% 14.3%
Uplift Michigan Academy*
123 students
48.8% poor
0 0 56 0% 0% 0%
Highland Park Public School Academy System*
372 students
93.8% poor
26 16 27 98.2% 11.5% 48%
Roseville Community Schools
4,631 students
61.7% poor
289 286 277 0% 0% 0.4%
Fennville Public Schools
1,305 students
73.1% poor
84 81 85 0% 0% 0%
Center Line Public Schools
2,553 students
74.3% poor
151 169 174 0% 0% 0%
Van Buren Public Schools
4,603 students
57.6% poor
282 292 292 0% 0% 0.7%
Baldwin Community Schools
515 students
95.3% poor
41 40 46 5% 2.4% 4.4%
Melvindale-North Allen Park Schools
3,135 students
86.7% poor
151 148 177 1.4% 2.7% 0.6%
Fitzgerald Public Schools
2,546 students
69% poor
159 176 192 0.6% 1.3% 1%
Republic-Michigamme Schools
110 students
60.9% poor
14 13 12 0% 0% 0%
Caniff Liberty Academy*
481 students
99% poor
30 30 29 3.3% 0% 10.3%
Walton Charter Academy*
815 students
93.6% poor
52 54 51 1.9% 1.9% 3.9%
Three Lakes Academy*
116 students
72.4% poor
12 12 13 26% 24.5% 47.8%
Shelby Public Schools
1,265 students
71.7% poor
77 73 78 1.4% 1.3% 3.8%
Universal Learning Academy*
615 students
82.6% poor
47 42 40 51.8% 40.1% 47.2%
Mildred C. Wells Preparatory Academy*
195 students
100% poor
12 13 13 0% 8.3% 45.8%
Burt Township School District
33 students
72.7% poor
7 6 6 16.8% 0% 15.7%
Cole Academy*
252 students
52.8% poor
11 10 15 0% 0% 0%
Evart Public Schools
898 students
71.9% poor
48 49 51 4.1% 4.2% 2%
Ashley Community Schools
259 students
71.4% poor
23 20 23 0% 0% 8.7%
Covert Public Schools
366 students
99.2% poor
17 22 22 0% 0% 0%
Prevail Academy*
589 students
89.1% poor
44 49 45 0% 0% 2.2%
South Redford School District
3,238 students
67.2% poor
179 178 189 23% 18.5% 13.3%
Walden Green Montessori*
245 students
38.8% poor
14 14 16 0% 0% 12.6%
Dowagiac Union School District
2,188 students
74.5% poor
131 134 137 0% 0% 0.7%
Vandercook Lake Public Schools
958 students
77.1% poor
71 73 63 0% 0% 0%
Dearborn Heights School District #7
2,507 students
76.7% poor
139 153 150 0.7% 0% 0.7%
Hillman Community Schools
411 students
67.4% poor
30 27 29 18.7% 0% 10.5%
Hagar Township S/D #6
81 students
81.5% poor
6 5 6 0% 0% 0%
Bloomingdale Public School District
1,164 students
81% poor
72 69 70 0% 0% 1.4%
Endeavor Charter Academy*
679 students
84.2% poor
39 47 45 2.1% 0% 6.7%
Rapid River Public Schools
328 students
46.3% poor
19 19 20 0% 0% 0%
Homer Community School District
1,025 students
54.5% poor
65 64 61 0% 0% 1.6%
East Shore Leadership Academy*
205 students
94.1% poor
15 19 17 0% 0% 0%
White Cloud Public Schools
957 students
75.5% poor
53 53 52 1.9% 0% 0%
Arbor Academy*
214 students
86.4% poor
22 20 13 0% 0% 0%
Hartford Public Schools
1,365 students
84.5% poor
75 75 83 1.3% 1.3% 1.2%
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD)*
1,940 students
82.8% poor
144 153 159 6.5% 4.2% 11.9%
Bellevue Community Schools
600 students
62.5% poor
36 37 46 0% 0% 2.2%
Charlton Heston Academy*
685 students
78.5% poor
43 38 45 23.6% 11.6% 44.4%
Burr Oak Community School District
287 students
73.9% poor
19 20 18 10.1% 5.1% 5.5%
Central Lake Public Schools
291 students
71.1% poor
24 20 19 15.3% 8.5% 0%
Inland Lakes Schools
689 students
59.1% poor
43 42 41 0% 0% 0%
Reading Community Schools
733 students
55.7% poor
46 40 42 0% 0% 0%
Macomb Montessori Academy*
201 students
86.6% poor
11 12 15 0% 9.1% 39.7%
Gateway To Success Academy*
122 students
82.8% poor
15 6 7 16.7% 0% 13.5%
Grand Rapids Public Schools
16,006 students
73.7% poor
1,214 1,213 1,147 2.8% 2.5% 2.7%
Michigan Online School*
431 students
69.1% poor
0 0 28 0% 0% 0%
Lansing Charter Academy*
546 students
89.9% poor
61 59 52 5.1% 3.3% 17.4%
Clintondale Community Schools
2,725 students
79.5% poor
136 144 125 0.7% 2.2% 2.4%
Romulus Community Schools
2,577 students
75.7% poor
180 186 181 0% 1.7% 2.2%
Orchard View Schools
2,268 students
75.5% poor
156 162 144 0% 0% 0%
Bendle Public Schools
1,185 students
96.8% poor
68 71 81 1.4% 0% 0%
GEE Edmonson Academy*
232 students
100% poor
18 17 13 12.1% 17.1% 38.5%
River City Scholars Charter Academy*
477 students
92.9% poor
50 48 41 0% 2% 4.8%
Michigan Great Lakes Virtual Academy*
2,857 students
77.4% poor
116 135 166 1.5% 0% 0%
American International Academy*
709 students
90.4% poor
25 22 16 8.9% 0% 38%
Paramount Charter Academy*
451 students
92.7% poor
34 42 43 4.7% 11.8% 13.9%
West MI Academy of Environmental Science*
822 students
60.6% poor
57 58 50 0% 0% 0%
Lincoln Park, School District of the City of
4,804 students
72.7% poor
312 333 346 0% 0% 0.6%
Hesperia Community Schools
899 students
72.6% poor
57 56 58 3.6% 0% 1.7%
Bentley Community School District
836 students
67.9% poor
46 46 60 2.2% 0% 1.7%
Charyl Stockwell Academy*
1,118 students
16.2% poor
64 66 65 3% 1.6% 6.2%
University Yes Academy*
554 students
79.4% poor
22 31 22 9.8% 0% 0%
Bridge Academy*
773 students
99.5% poor
42 45 43 11.1% 4.8% 37.2%
Jackson Public Schools
4,770 students
71% poor
311 292 267 1% 1% 1.9%
Detroit Community Schools*
672 students
99.9% poor
52 43 36 23.1% 11.5% 36.3%
Rutherford Winans Academy*
179 students
93.3% poor
11 11 9 19% 9.1% 0%
Renaissance Public School Academy*
431 students
58.5% poor
27 26 29 7.8% 0% 3.4%
Taylor School District
6,217 students
62.3% poor
436 434 432 1.4% 2.1% 2.5%
Dr. Joseph F. Pollack Academic Center of Excellence*
835 students
82.2% poor
45 51 51 3.9% 4.4% 5.9%
Marion Public Schools
421 students
66.3% poor
32 30 26 3.4% 0% 3.9%
International Academy of Saginaw*
194 students
74.7% poor
22 15 15 20% 23.3% 34.5%
Madison-Carver Academy*
686 students
90.7% poor
32 37 31 0% 3.1% 0%
Kensington Woods Schools*
128 students
25.8% poor
17 16 13 6.2% 6% 0%
Washington-Parks Academy*
1,624 students
90.2% poor
84 83 65 0% 0% 0%
Trillium Academy*
594 students
71.2% poor
54 50 44 4% 1.8% 13.6%
The New Standard Academy*
581 students
96% poor
41 37 35 0% 2.5% 2.9%
Innocademy Allegan Campus*
113 students
77.9% poor
9 8 11 12.2% 0% 0%
Wayne-Westland Community School District
10,898 students
53.2% poor
798 793 778 0.1% 0.3% 0%
North Adams-Jerome Public Schools
283 students
76.3% poor
19 20 19 0% 0% 0%
Alanson Public Schools
219 students
63.9% poor
18 16 18 6.3% 5.6% 5.6%
Will Carleton Charter School Academy*
251 students
26.7% poor
23 23 18 26% 4.3% 34.1%
Watersmeet Township School District
134 students
78.4% poor
17 18 18 5.6% 5.9% 5.7%
Pittsford Area Schools
453 students
60.5% poor
29 28 28 0% 0% 3.6%
Ypsilanti Community Schools
3,840 students
65.3% poor
333 330 298 0.9% 0% 1.3%
Bangor Public Schools (Van Buren)
1,118 students
76.1% poor
71 76 77 0% 0% 2.6%
Escuela Avancemos*
301 students
98.3% poor
17 17 20 5.9% 0% 15.4%
Star International Academy*
1,562 students
93.5% poor
98 90 86 29.8% 14.3% 33.9%
Godfrey-Lee Public Schools
1,840 students
95.4% poor
127 128 118 0.8% 0% 0.8%
Waterford Montessori Academy*
309 students
31.1% poor
13 14 19 36.3% 0% 32.3%
Faxon Language Immersion Academy*
67 students
43.3% poor
11 5 5 88.9% 9.1% 0%
Quest Charter Academy*
769 students
75.4% poor
58 53 55 1.9% 1.7% 12.7%
Francis Reh PSA*
455 students
97.8% poor
28 22 29 27.8% 0% 31.1%
Atherton Community Schools
852 students
81.9% poor
45 50 52 0% 4.5% 0%
Caseville Public Schools
268 students
70.1% poor
22 20 21 10.1% 4.6% 0%
Owendale-Gagetown Area School District
148 students
65.5% poor
11 10 10 0% 0% 0%
Harper Woods, The School District of the City of
2,349 students
76.1% poor
98 109 133 0.9% 0% 5.3%
Kelloggsville Public Schools
2,418 students
87.9% poor
143 148 167 0% 0% 0%
Advanced Technology Academy*
1,296 students
92.7% poor
104 91 90 2.2% 2.9% 5.6%
Global Heights Academy*
261 students
100% poor
20 24 19 0% 0% 5.3%
Eau Claire Public Schools
754 students
90.6% poor
61 65 50 1.5% 0% 0%
Lansing Public School District
10,652 students
71.5% poor
797 774 762 2.7% 2.1% 4.6%
Battle Creek Montessori Academy*
180 students
72.2% poor
9 8 9 12.5% 11.1% 10.7%
Evergreen Academy*
54 students
68.5% poor
10 10 8 0% 0% 0%
Hamtramck, School District of the City of
3,300 students
94.4% poor
186 196 221 1% 0% 0.5%
Southwest Detroit Community School*
386 students
93.8% poor
23 31 31 12.9% 13% 6.5%
Walkerville Public Schools
263 students
82.9% poor
22 21 22 0% 0% 4.5%
Great Lakes Cyber Academy*
1,061 students
58.2% poor
30 37 43 5.4% 3.3% 0%
Sarah J. Webber Media Arts Academy*
219 students
88.6% poor
10 9 7 0% 0% 30.8%
Hope of Detroit Academy*
957 students
95.8% poor
49 58 63 12.1% 6.1% 30.4%
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies (PSAD)*
1,286 students
82.3% poor
90 87 92 3.4% 1.1% 8.7%
Highpoint Virtual Academy of Michigan*
837 students
74.7% poor
9 24 34 4.1% 0% 0%
Van Dyke Public Schools
2,355 students
88.3% poor
172 173 160 1.7% 0% 0.6%
Summit Academy North*
1,842 students
66.3% poor
104 101 101 4% 2.9% 4%
Mt. Morris Consolidated Schools
1,827 students
82.7% poor
133 127 139 0% 0% 0.7%
St. Clair County Intervention Academy*
55 students
100% poor
6 6 5 0% 0% 0%
Global Tech Academy*
181 students
94.5% poor
14 12 13 0% 7.4% 0%
East Jackson Community Schools
940 students
64.7% poor
56 59 57 3.4% 1.8% 3.5%
Nah Tah Wahsh Public School Academy*
186 students
88.2% poor
24 23 26 8.7% 4.2% 11.5%
Hillsdale Preparatory School*
132 students
50% poor
13 13 10 7.7% 0% 30%
Dove Academy of Detroit*
469 students
88.1% poor
30 33 35 3.1% 3.4% 16.9%
Muskegon, Public Schools of the City of
3,589 students
87.6% poor
263 273 272 3.3% 4.2% 4.4%
WAY Michigan*
195 students
80% poor
5 9 10 0% 0% 0%
The Woodley Leadership Academy*
182 students
90.7% poor
0 0 10 0% 0% 0%
LifeTech Academy*
161 students
51.6% poor
5 7 7 0% 0% 28.8%
Momentum Academy*
216 students
89.4% poor
13 11 22 9.5% 8% 4.5%
Eastpointe Community Schools
2,691 students
79% poor
235 217 208 3.7% 0% 7.2%
Hazel Park, School District of the City of
3,271 students
66.4% poor
220 254 221 0% 0% 0.5%
New Branches Charter Academy*
350 students
82.6% poor
23 22 23 4.5% 0% 0%
George Washington Carver Academy*
537 students
99.6% poor
32 25 33 16% 0% 27.5%
Chandler Park Academy*
2,199 students
92.4% poor
124 118 118 10.2% 4% 16.9%
Westwood Heights Schools
1,510 students
92.2% poor
73 83 81 0% 0% 3.7%
Litchfield Community Schools
256 students
71.1% poor
16 18 16 0% 6.3% 0%
Flat River Academy*
146 students
78.8% poor
14 11 18 26.4% 7.1% 27.4%
West Village Academy*
353 students
70.8% poor
27 28 32 10.7% 11.1% 18.8%
Redford Union Schools, District No. 1
2,392 students
76.3% poor
184 212 209 2.4% 1.6% 3.4%
Bridgeport-Spaulding Community School District
1,565 students
84.2% poor
91 89 88 2.2% 2.2% 1.1%
Whitefish Township Schools
47 students
63.8% poor
8 9 8 0% 0% 0%
Da Vinci Institute*
446 students
74.7% poor
32 29 26 0% 3.2% 3.8%
Detroit Achievement Academy*
286 students
73.4% poor
9 17 21 0% 0% 0%
GEE White Academy*
374 students
99.7% poor
31 30 26 13.5% 6.6% 26.7%
Battle Creek Public Schools
3,911 students
83.7% poor
311 307 313 2% 1% 7%
Mount Clemens Community School District
1,041 students
79.7% poor
73 71 74 0% 0% 0%
Countryside Academy*
756 students
88% poor
45 40 46 2.5% 2.2% 13.2%
Crescent Academy*
962 students
88.9% poor
72 64 57 17.2% 16.7% 26.2%
Woodland Park Academy*
386 students
80.6% poor
32 33 34 0% 3.1% 6%
Timberland Academy*
729 students
96.7% poor
50 57 57 8.7% 0% 1.8%
Hope Academy*
534 students
87.6% poor
28 30 31 0% 0% 12.9%
Pontiac City School District
4,180 students
79.6% poor
286 268 259 0.4% 0.4% 0%
David Ellis Academy*
304 students
92.8% poor
27 23 22 4.3% 3.7% 9.2%
Oak Park, School District of the City of
4,368 students
81.4% poor
263 279 286 1.1% 0% 2.1%
Legacy Charter Academy*
747 students
97.9% poor
56 52 54 1.9% 3.6% 26.1%
River Rouge, School District of the City of
2,279 students
79.4% poor
99 101 114 11.8% 6.1% 9.6%
Weston Preparatory Academy*
297 students
90.6% poor
20 16 16 18.8% 4.9% 25%
MacDowell Preparatory Academy*
366 students
98.6% poor
16 20 23 14.7% 24.9% 13.2%
Richfield Public School Academy*
670 students
95.7% poor
57 53 48 1.9% 1.8% 0%
Three Oaks Public School Academy*
350 students
100% poor
24 27 24 0% 4.1% 24.5%
Detroit Academy of Arts and Sciences*
1,045 students
93.3% poor
37 37 42 0% 10.8% 0%
Beecher Community School District
755 students
93% poor
53 52 49 1.9% 1.9% 8.2%
Vanderbilt Area Schools
80 students
81.3% poor
12 10 14 10.4% 17.2% 0%
Genesee STEM Academy*
308 students
94.5% poor
16 19 16 21.1% 0% 0%
Global Preparatory Academy*
107 students
84.1% poor
10 11 10 0% 0% 0%
Summit Academy*
261 students
73.2% poor
25 27 20 3.6% 0% 0%
Detroit Premier Academy*
770 students
95.7% poor
59 62 50 12.9% 3.4% 23.9%
Martin Luther King, Jr. Education Center Academy*
397 students
85.6% poor
24 22 21 13.6% 16.7% 23.8%
Commonwealth Community Development Academy*
193 students
91.2% poor
9 7 10 0% 0% 0%
Pontiac Academy for Excellence*
774 students
75.3% poor
77 74 55 5.4% 6.5% 5.5%
Marvin L. Winans Academy of Performing Arts*
520 students
93.5% poor
29 33 22 6% 6.9% 9.2%
Ecorse Public Schools
1,055 students
81.7% poor
68 59 71 0% 0% 4.2%
Detroit Public Schools Community District
50,176 students
85.9% poor
3,022 3,439 3,507 1.6% 0.6% 2.6%
Cesar Chavez Academy*
2,291 students
97.5% poor
149 150 157 12.6% 8% 23.5%
Saginaw Preparatory Academy*
308 students
97.1% poor
27 19 23 15.7% 0% 8.6%
Pansophia Academy*
419 students
81.6% poor
26 28 27 0% 3.8% 7.3%
Bay City Academy*
365 students
76.2% poor
34 30 26 23.4% 14.7% 23.1%
Frontier International Academy*
640 students
98.9% poor
27 29 35 6.8% 3.8% 23%
Hamilton Academy*
207 students
89.9% poor
20 22 17 0% 5.1% 0%
Bradford Academy*
1,416 students
83.2% poor
99 105 104 5.7% 4% 5.8%
Plymouth Educational Center Charter School*
507 students
84.2% poor
33 32 21 15.9% 9.1% 9.5%
Arts and Technology Academy of Pontiac*
843 students
76.6% poor
35 36 22 19.4% 20% 22.7%
Burton Glen Charter Academy*
599 students
97.2% poor
52 50 41 2% 0% 9.6%
Flextech High School Shepherd*
35 students
60% poor
0 0 4 0% 0% 0%
Conner Creek Academy East*
932 students
92.8% poor
56 56 55 9% 3.5% 14.4%
Westwood Community School District
1,661 students
84.9% poor
124 119 115 0% 0% 0%
Michigan International Prep School*
449 students
67% poor
0 3 9 0% 0% 0%
W-A-Y Academy*
352 students
93.2% poor
26 17 14 0% 0% 0%
WAY Academy - Flint*
132 students
92.4% poor
17 11 7 0% 0% 0%
Great Lakes Academy*
151 students
91.4% poor
13 14 11 14.3% 7.7% 9.5%
State Street Academy*
120 students
82.5% poor
17 14 9 7.1% 0% 22.2%
Hope Academy of West Michigan*
371 students
92.5% poor
26 34 34 3% 0% 5.8%
Michigan Mathematics and Science Academy*
817 students
99.8% poor
40 51 58 19.6% 10% 22.2%
Mid-Michigan Leadership Academy*
238 students
98.7% poor
29 26 21 11.5% 10.3% 14.3%
Alba Public Schools
123 students
81.3% poor
14 11 12 0% 0% 0%
Detroit Merit Charter Academy*
737 students
92.3% poor
51 57 55 8.8% 3.9% 21.9%
Clara B. Ford Academy (SDA)*
131 students
99.2% poor
15 15 17 13.7% 0% 6%
William C. Abney Academy*
352 students
97.2% poor
41 32 34 0% 2.4% 0%
Flint, School District of the City of
4,245 students
90.4% poor
355 301 275 0% 0% 8%
Insight School of Michigan*
769 students
74% poor
41 38 41 0% 0% 4.9%
Academy of Warren*
678 students
95.7% poor
46 35 40 20% 15.2% 17.5%
Lighthouse Academy*
353 students
95.2% poor
29 39 43 0% 20.8% 16.3%
Oakside Scholars Charter Academy*
739 students
92.8% poor
53 56 50 3.6% 0% 21.8%
Macomb Academy*
74 students
27% poor
9 8 5 0% 0% 0%
Grand Blanc Academy*
384 students
88% poor
32 31 28 6.4% 3.1% 21.4%
Regent Park Scholars Charter Academy*
749 students
98.1% poor
56 55 57 1.8% 3.6% 21%
Presque Isle Academy*
18 students
100% poor
2 2 1 0% 0% 0%
Old Mission Peninsula School*
134 students
19.4% poor
0 0 14 0% 0% 0%
Elm River Township School District
4 students
100% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Kalamazoo Covenant Academy*
184 students
99.5% poor
0 10 7 0% 0% 0%
Muskegon Covenant Academy*
235 students
99.1% poor
8 7 7 0% 0% 0%
Capstone Academy Charter School (SDA)*
185 students
98.9% poor
8 8 6 0% 0% 15.5%
New Paradigm Glazer-Loving Academy*
341 students
99.4% poor
18 19 14 0% 0% 20.8%
Covenant House Academy Detroit*
501 students
96.2% poor
31 25 25 0% 0% 12%
Alternative Educational Academy of Ogemaw County*
118 students
92.4% poor
4 4 4 0% 0% 0%
Covenant House Academy Grand Rapids*
306 students
90.8% poor
13 15 20 6.7% 7.7% 0%
Casman Alternative Academy*
75 students
90.7% poor
5 5 8 20% 19.8% 12.2%
El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy*
260 students
100% poor
12 14 10 21.4% 0% 0%
Cornerstone Health and Technology School*
556 students
88.8% poor
28 35 28 0% 0% 3.6%
Life Skills Center of Pontiac*
122 students
87.7% poor
6 6 3 0% 18.2% 0%
Alternative Educational Academy of Iosco County*
156 students
84.6% poor
4 7 7 0% 0% 0%
WSC Academy*
62 students
83.9% poor
4 5 4 20.8% 0% 0%
Battle Creek Area Learning Center*
167 students
83.8% poor
8 9 11 0% 0% 0%
Church School District
22 students
81.8% poor
1 2 1 0% 0% 0%
Blended Learning Academies Credit Recovery High School*
100 students
80% poor
4 4 5 0% 0% 0%
Academic and Career Education Academy*
108 students
78.7% poor
6 6 7 0% 0% 15.4%
Big Jackson School District
25 students
76% poor
1 2 2 0% 0% 0%
Berlin Township S/D #3
8 students
75% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Windover High School*
184 students
73.9% poor
4 7 5 0% 0% 0%
Bay-Arenac Community High School*
172 students
72.7% poor
7 6 8 0% 0% 12.5%
Success Virtual Learning Centers of Michigan*
1,237 students
72.4% poor
0 13 21 0% 0% 0%
Wells Township School District
10 students
70% poor
2 3 4 0% 0% 0%
Arvon Township School District
10 students
70% poor
2 2 2 0% 0% 0%
Youth Advancement Academy*
19 students
68.4% poor
5 4 2 0% 0% 0%
Jalen Rose Leadership Academy*
413 students
90.3% poor
23 24 26 20.4% 12.8% 15.4%
Taylor Preparatory High School*
433 students
64.9% poor
23 26 29 7.7% 0% 3.5%
Virtual Learning Academy of St. Clair County*
132 students
63.6% poor
9 9 7 0% 0% 0%
Relevant Academy of Eaton County*
69 students
62.3% poor
5 5 6 0% 0% 0%
Grand River Preparatory High School*
625 students
60.2% poor
39 42 44 0% 0% 0%
Wellspring Preparatory High School*
430 students
59.8% poor
29 33 40 0% 0% 0%
Arts Academy in the Woods*
352 students
56.5% poor
23 28 29 0% 0% 3.5%
Henry Ford Academy*
515 students
54.2% poor
28 28 32 0% 0% 3.2%
Lake Superior Academy*
66 students
51.5% poor
1 2 2 0% 0% 0%
NexTech High School*
133 students
66.2% poor
9 17 16 35.9% 0% 6.3%
Arbor Preparatory High School*
313 students
45.4% poor
27 31 27 6.6% 0% 0%
Oneida Township S/D #3
24 students
37.5% poor
2 2 2 0% 0% 0%
NexTech High School of Lansing*
169 students
46.7% poor
12 11 10 27.9% 8.3% 9.9%
FlexTech High School*
238 students
35.3% poor
17 18 17 11.3% 5.9% 0%
Sigel Township S/D #3F
20 students
30% poor
2 2 2 0% 0% 0%
Canton Preparatory High School*
402 students
29.4% poor
31 31 33 0% 0% 0%
Washtenaw Technical Middle College*
754 students
27.5% poor
20 20 23 0% 0% 0%
West Michigan Aviation Academy*
611 students
26.5% poor
37 42 39 2.4% 5.4% 17.8%
FlexTech High School - Novi*
186 students
31.2% poor
7 7 9 0% 0% 0%
Mackinac Island Public Schools
67 students
14.9% poor
10 10 10 0% 0% 0%
Grant Township S/D #2
4 students
0% poor
1 1 1 0% 0% 0%
Charlevoix Montessori Academy for the Arts*
42 students
76.2% poor
5 6 10 33.1% 0% 20.7%
Innocademy*
340 students
30.3% poor
21 20 30 35.2% 19.3% 20.1%
New School High*
82 students
12.2% poor
7 12 10 0% 0% 10.2%
Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona ESD - District created from ISD
218 students
77.5% poor
19 22 25 0% 0% 0%
Barry ISD - District created from ISD
170 students
58.2% poor
29 25 25 0% 0% 0%
Bay-Arenac ISD - District created from ISD
851 students
61.6% poor
150 148 153 0.7% 0% 0%
Charlevoix-Emmet ISD - District created from ISD
392 students
42.9% poor
62 63 64 0% 0% 0%
Eastern Upper Peninsula ISD - District created from ISD
189 students
50.8% poor
48 47 45 0% 2.1% 0%
Dickinson-Iron ISD - District created from ISD
210 students
65.7% poor
37 36 35 2.8% 0% 0%
Eaton RESA - District created from ISD
359 students
72.7% poor
92 109 94 0% 1.1% 0%
Traverse Bay Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,077 students
58.4% poor
276 276 278 0% 0% 0%
Gratiot-Isabella RESD - District created from ISD
221 students
74.2% poor
78 75 76 1.3% 1.3% 0%
Hillsdale ISD - District created from ISD
374 students
69.5% poor
44 45 46 2.2% 0% 0%
Copper Country ISD - District created from ISD
248 students
74.2% poor
38 40 41 12.5% 7.9% 12.3%
Huron ISD - District created from ISD
204 students
59.8% poor
50 51 52 0% 0% 0%
Ionia ISD - District created from ISD
490 students
49.4% poor
125 112 116 0% 0% 0%
Iosco RESA - District created from ISD
232 students
71.6% poor
22 19 23 0% 0% 0%
Lewis Cass ISD - District created from ISD
284 students
64.4% poor
47 44 38 4.5% 0% 7.8%
Kalamazoo RESA - District created from ISD
2,084 students
52.3% poor
162 177 167 7.9% 5.6% 6.6%
Sanilac ISD - District created from ISD
317 students
69.1% poor
33 34 36 0% 0% 5.6%
Gogebic-Ontonagon ISD - District created from ISD
117 students
51.3% poor
21 20 18 4.9% 14.3% 5.4%
Lapeer ISD - District created from ISD
294 students
60.5% poor
57 56 59 0% 1.7% 0%
Livingston ESA - District created from ISD
619 students
46% poor
144 165 165 0% 0% 0%
Midland County Educational Service Agency - District created from ISD
1,775 students
66.4% poor
62 66 65 0% 1.6% 4.6%
Macomb ISD - District created from ISD
3,651 students
58.9% poor
350 355 359 0% 0% 0%
C.O.O.R. ISD - District created from ISD
318 students
71.4% poor
22 21 26 0% 4.5% 3.8%
Manistee ISD - District created from ISD
73 students
82.2% poor
27 28 27 0% 3.7% 3.7%
Mecosta-Osceola ISD - District created from ISD
530 students
55.5% poor
99 92 94 0% 0% 0%
Menominee ISD - District created from ISD
107 students
72% poor
16 18 19 0% 0% 0%
Monroe ISD - District created from ISD
1,279 students
56.1% poor
169 170 179 0% 2.4% 0%
St. Joseph County ISD - District created from ISD
474 students
55.7% poor
65 64 66 3.1% 1.5% 3%
Muskegon Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,535 students
65.6% poor
73 83 88 7.2% 4.1% 0%
Montcalm Area ISD - District created from ISD
525 students
51.8% poor
99 102 105 2% 0% 2.9%
Oakland Schools - District created from ISD
2,768 students
69.3% poor
140 132 137 0% 0% 0%
Kent ISD - District created from ISD
2,918 students
57.3% poor
564 594 583 0% 0% 0.2%
Lenawee ISD - District created from ISD
596 students
57.7% poor
140 139 131 0.7% 1.4% 2.3%
Shiawassee Regional ESD - District created from ISD
598 students
62.7% poor
87 85 91 1.2% 1.2% 2.2%
Cheb-Otsego-Presque Isle ESD - District created from ISD
307 students
51.1% poor
39 46 50 2.2% 0% 2%
Clare-Gladwin Regional Education Service District - District created from ISD
379 students
61.5% poor
51 49 49 4% 0% 2%
Wexford-Missaukee ISD - District created from ISD
421 students
48.2% poor
76 76 78 0% 0% 0%
Delta-Schoolcraft ISD - District created from ISD
321 students
81.9% poor
45 44 41 0% 0% 0%
Ottawa Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,426 students
50.1% poor
148 151 162 3.3% 3.4% 1.9%
Calhoun Intermediate School District - District created from ISD
1,208 students
60.3% poor
202 200 192 2% 0.5% 1.6%
Marquette-Alger RESA - District created from ISD
124 students
62.9% poor
20 21 21 0% 0% 0%
Newaygo County RESA - District created from ISD
465 students
55.7% poor
65 66 66 1.5% 0% 1.5%
Allegan Area Educational Service Agency - District created from ISD
426 students
48.6% poor
88 81 81 1.2% 1.1% 1.2%
Branch ISD - District created from ISD
551 students
58.3% poor
80 81 81 0% 1.3% 1.2%
Saginaw ISD - District created from ISD
837 students
63.7% poor
189 172 170 1.2% 1.1% 1.2%
St. Clair County RESA - District created from ISD
600 students
69.5% poor
77 81 93 1.2% 2.6% 1.1%
Van Buren ISD - District created from ISD
641 students
40.7% poor
212 195 192 0% 1.4% 0%
Washtenaw ISD - District created from ISD
1,275 students
60.4% poor
137 159 188 0.6% 0% 0%
Berrien RESA - District created from ISD
800 students
64.4% poor
122 119 136 0% 0.8% 0.7%
Ingham ISD - District created from ISD
1,365 students
60.9% poor
158 157 163 0% 1.9% 0.6%
Tuscola ISD - District created from ISD
550 students
74.7% poor
95 95 96 0% 0% 0%
Jackson ISD - District created from ISD
1,215 students
64% poor
222 219 228 0% 0% 0.4%
West Shore Educational Service District - District created from ISD
417 students
71.5% poor
82 80 77 0% 0% 0%
Genesee ISD - District created from ISD
3,744 students
65.9% poor
243 254 399 2% 1.6% 0.3%
Clinton County RESA - District created from ISD
349 students
40.4% poor
62 65 63 0% 0% 0%

Source: Michigan Department of Education’s Office of Educator Excellence

Note: Poor indicates the percentage of students who are considered economically disadvantaged. The majority of those are eligible for a free or reduced price lunch because of their family income.

long-term subs data

The increase in long-term substitutes is an open secret among school leaders across the state, but may not be well known to the public. Schools aren’t required to inform parents when their children are taught by teachers with no education background (though some told Bridge they do), and several organizations including the Michigan Department of Education downplayed the significance of the trend. 

Still, the growth in untrained teachers appears to run counter to calls to improve academic achievement in the states’ struggling public education system.

Indeed, Michigan legislators lowered state standards for substitute permits in 2018, from requiring 90 hours of college credit to requiring 60 hours – the equivalent of two years of college – or an associate’s degree.

No education groups objected.

In response to a written question on whether long-term substitutes impact learning in Michigan classrooms, Leah Breen, director of MDE’s Office of Educator Excellence, responded: “Yes, we think that the use of long-term substitute teachers are an important piece of solving educator shortages in some of our hardest-to-staff districts, and in lieu of being able to fill these placements with certified teachers, are the next best option for students.”

Dan Quisenberry, executive director of the Michigan Association of Public School Academies, which advocates for the state’s charter school industry, also downplayed the impact of long-term substitutes, pointing to a Brookings Institution study that found no connection between teacher certification and student learning (though other studies show mixed results).

Vidmar

Lou Ann Vidmar, a former art teacher who now represents union teachers in Cass and Berrien counties in southwest Michigan, calls being taught by a long-term substitute a “wasted year” for students. (Bridge photo by Ron French)

But Lou Ann Vidmar, a former art teacher who now represents union teachers in Cass and Berrien counties in southwest Michigan, said she’s seen the negative impact of long-term subs on students, especially those from high-poverty schools where scores are typically well below state averages.

“It’s a wasted year,” for those students, she said. “It's just wasted time because usually that sub has not been trained in that subject matter.

“You are setting yourself up for failure,” Vidmar said.

Moje, of U-M, said the impact on students being taught by untrained teachers could be devastating. 

“Having an effective teacher throughout one’s learning life is the single most important factor in a child’s academic success,” Moje said. “When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factors, including services, facilities, and even leadership.

A Stanford study found that students in classrooms led by certified teachers had higher academic achievement than students in classrooms of uncertified teachers are less effective. 

Not the substitutes of yesteryear

Students and parents are familiar with short-term substitute teachers who pinch-hit in classrooms for teachers who are sick.

By contrast, long-term substitutes are hired by schools to be the full-time teacher in a classroom, often for a full school year.

A long-term substitute in Michigan can range from a certified teacher who is teaching a class in a subject they are not certified to teach, to someone with an associate’s degree in any subject whatsoever, to someone who attended two years of college without finishing and has no teacher education training.

Bridge analyzed data received from the Office of Educator Excellence through a Freedom of Information Act request. Bridge combined three categories of substitute permits that districts request from MDE – full-year basic, full-year shortage and extended daily – to provide a more complete representation of the number of classrooms headed by substitutes for an extended period of time. That methodology was endorsed by Craig Thiel of the Citizens Research Council of Michigan, a nonpartisan public policy research organization.

Absent from that count are people hired as expert substitutes – mechanics for an auto mechanics vocational tech program, for example – and people who work as short-term substitutes, by filling in for sick or absent teachers on a day-to-day basis.

To students and parents, long-term subs are virtually indistinguishable from certified teachers – they are full-time teachers reporting to the same classroom every day. Their pay can range from the same as first-year certified teachers in some school districts (typically in the low $30,000s) to less than $100 per school day in other districts and charters. 

As recently as the 2014-15 school year, there were only 235 long-term substitutes teaching in Michigan public schools, which include traditional school districts and charter schools. By 2018-19, that number had exploded to 2,538.

Last school year, 1 in 27 teachers in the state’s traditional and charter public schools (3.4 percent) was a long-term substitute, according to Bridge’s analysis.

Hundreds of districts had few to no long-term subs. But others, typically higher-poverty, lower-performing schools, they were far more common.

“I don’t want to sound like the sky is falling,” said Chris Wigent, executive director of the Michigan Association of Superintendents and School Administrators. “But having a quality teacher in front of children makes a big difference, and we’re not seeing that right now.”

Long-term subs data

‘A necessity’

The genesis for Michigan’s long-term substitute explosion is a growing teacher shortage in some geographic areas of the state. 

Enrollment in teacher prep programs at Michigan universities dropped 66 percent over seven years between 2009 and 2016. While overall, there are enough students graduating from Michigan’s university-based teaching programs to replace teachers who retire and quit, they are not evenly distributed geographically or by teaching specialty, according to a report by the Citizens Research Council of Michigan.

Teacher shortages tend to hit hardest where classrooms are more challenging and pay is the lowest; often that leaves urban and rural schools scrambling to find certified teachers, said former Benton Harbor Superintendent Robert Herrera, who recently left the impoverished, urban district to become superintendent in Farmington, a middle-class Detroit suburb.

“If I’m in Farmington, I don’t have a teacher shortage,” Herrera said. “I posted a Spanish teacher opening, had 12 applicants. In [Benton Harbor] I’d get no applications.”

Farmington, in Oakland County, had two long-term subs among its 656 teaching slots.

Many students will never see a long-term substitute. They are rare at the state’s wealthiest districts, such as Troy, Bloomfield Hills, East Grand Rapids, Rockford, Saline and Dexter. Of the 16 districts with at least 100 teachers and low poverty (fewer than 20 percent of students), there were two long-term subs last year among their 5,200 teachers and 82,300 students.

Other children can’t avoid them. 

In 83 districts – 77 charters and six traditional public districts – long-term subs accounted for at least one in five teaching positions. Overall, long-term subs equaled 35 percent of the teaching slots in those districts, which enrolled 41,700 kids last year. Nearly half of those districts, 39, were in Wayne County.

Among them is Voyageur Academy in Detroit, one of the city’s larger charters with over 1,100 students. Voyageur Superintendent Vergil Smith  said he would love to have all certified teachers at his school, but last year, Voyageur had 29 long-term subs – nearly half of a teaching staff of 59. The school’s teaching staff went from 7 percent long-term substitutes in 2017-18, to 49 percent a year later.

Smith said that while some of the subs had bachelor’s degrees, the “vast majority do not have four-year degrees. Some have associate [degrees].”

Smith argued that some long-term subs are the equal of a certified teacher; and not all certified teachers are good in the classroom. But he said he’d prefer to hire people who have gotten professional certifications.

“Generally the certified teacher does a better job, they’re more competent, they’ve been trained, they have a toolbox of strategies to use. But that doesn’t guarantee success,” he said.

Finding certified teachers “is one of my biggest challenges because that’s going to impact the trajectory of the entire school year. It impacts the culture, the scores, the staff relationships,” Smith said.

Because charter schools tend to pay teachers less they’ve been hit by the teacher shortage both first and hardest.

Charter leader Quisenberry said the long-term sub problem was “not a charter school problem” but one of supply and demand: There aren’t enough teachers in the state.

He defended charters and their increasing reliance on long-term subs, and pointed out that districts such as Detroit are able to hire away certified teachers from charters because of better pay and benefits packages.

Unions represent most traditional public school teachers in the state and school districts must publicize their collective bargaining agreements which delineate teacher pay. Most charters do not have unions and they are not required to divulge how much each teacher is paid. 

Last year, Detroit district superintendent Vitti lured certified teachers to fill hundreds of open DPS positions with $3,000 hiring bonuses. Many came from area charter schools and helped the district dramatically shrink the number of classes taught by long-term subs.

“That success came at the expense of smaller districts” such as charters, said Paula Simmons, president of human resources for Elite School Management, which handles hiring for the Detroit Service Learning Academy, which pulled 47 long-term sub permits to help cover 61 teaching slots last year.

Charters have few options, Quisenberry said, when certified staff leave for other opportunities and have to have someone in the classroom. “A permit is better than nobody,” he said and suggested that research shows that teacher certification is not a guarantor of success.

Quisenberry admitted that hiring certified teachers remains a challenge. 

“I would never agree that charters aren't competitive, but it's widely known that [Detroit Public Schools] offers bonuses and increased pay. And if you're looking at a brand-new teacher, a relatively young teacher in their profession, and they're willing to teach in an urban environment, they're likely to choose a district that's throwing cash like that,” he said.

Officials from authorizers that oversee charters  told Bridge they are aware of the hiring struggles and said they are working with charter operators to increase the number of qualified teachers.

Janelle Brzezinski, a spokeswoman for Central Michigan University’s charter school office, which oversees more than 50 charters, said the school makes sure its charters follow state rules regarding certification and long-term permits.

If CMU sees that a charter has numerous teacher vacancies, it requires a plan to “remedy” the situation “by having full-time teachers,” Brzezinski said. Sixteen of the CMU’s more than 50 charters had long-term subs equal to 20 percent or more of teaching slots last year.

Some rural traditional school districts have also turned to long-term substitutes. In tiny Mid-Peninsula School District, covering 350 square miles around Hiawatha National Forest, four of the 12 teachers –  a third – are long-term substitutes. Hiring teachers who aren’t certified, or not certified in the subject areas they are teaching, is sometimes a necessity when the district can’t find qualified teachers to move to the rural Upper Peninsula, officials said.

“We posted for high school science and high school math (positions) twice and couldn’t find anyone,” said Mid-Peninsula Superintendent Eric VanDamme. “I searched high and low for these folks. Our applicant pool is narrower every year.”

VanDamme was able to hire long-term substitutes who he said are qualified (one was certified to teach in Florida, VanDamme said), but he acknowledged the problem isn’t going away soon.

“One of our biggest problems is our lack of ability to offer competitive wage scales compared to other professions,” VanDamme said. “I can be a plumber in rural northern Michigan who makes $65,000 plus benefits, or go to school for four years (to be a teacher) and make $30,000 and have $80,000 in student loans. That’s easy math.”

At Charlton Heston Academy charter school in Northern Michigan’s Roscommon County, 44 percent of teachers were long-term substitutes in 2018-19. Charlton Heston Superintendent David Patterson said the school has had trouble attracting certified teachers, but also said he believes the school’s long-term subs are doing a great job.

The growth in long-term substitutes is too recent for an analysis on the impact on learning. But students attending schools with low student achievement on Michigan’s M-STEP tests are more likely to be in a district with more long-term subs than the state average.

For example, Charlton Heston charter school has the highest share of long-term substitutes in the four-county Crawford Oscoda Ogemaw Roscommon Intermediate School District, and also has the lowest student achievement. Similarly, Benton Harbor Area Schools has the lowest student achievement in Berrien County and the second-highest share of long-term substitutes in 2018-19, many of whom  did not have a college degree, according to former superintendent Herrera.

Herrera told Bridge the district, which is under pressure from the state to improve test scores, was on track to have more than 60 percent long-term subs next school year.

Vidmar, the former art teacher, is skeptical Benton Harbor can meet the improvements mandated by the state when the number of long-term subs is only going to increasethis upcoming school year.

“How can you do that (improve) with long-term subs?” 

Parents often unaware

Detroit’s Vitti said he doubts most parents even know whether their child’s teacher is certified. In poorer districts like Detroit, he said many parents just assume their child has a certified teacher.

The state doesn't require school districts to inform parents if their child is being taught by a long-term substitute, though Charlton Heston Academy and others told Bridge they do alert parents.  Parents can look up the certification status of their children’s teachers here.

In fact, some Detroit charters with the highest percentages of long-term brag about the high quality of their teachers. For example: 

State Rep. Donna Lasinski, D-Ann Arbor, said the state should require districts to alert parents when a non-certified teacher is hired.

“A well-run school has an obligation to tell parents who is at the front of classrooms,” she said.

“Pretty much any adult with two years of community college can be a warm body in a classroom,” said Sheryl Kennedy, a former teacher and school administrator who is now a Democratic state representative. “It’s terrifying.”

From the point of view of the Michigan Department of Education, though, skyrocketing use of long-term substitutes as full-time teachers is a solution to teacher shortages.

“The Michigan Department of Education (MDE) has been working diligently with Michigan schools to utilize long-term substitute permits,” wrote MDE’s Breen. School districts and charters are “taking advantage of a variety of flexible placements, residency programs, and ‘grow-your-own’ programs, when a certified teacher is not available.”

Breen pointed out that long-term substitutes must receive positive evaluations to keep their jobs, have a mentor teacher and, in core subject areas such as math or science, must have “subject-area expertise.”

“Long-term sub permits allow teachers to expand their endorsements  (allowing them to teach more subjects or grade levels) for greater flexibility and knowledge. They allow paraprofessionals who are in the process of becoming a teacher, and have already demonstrated a commitment to the profession, to teach while they are earning their degree. They allow scientists and mechanics to fill very important roles in the school setting based on content expertise.”

When asked if long-term subs represent a diminution of teacher quality, Breen wrote, “The Michigan Department of Education perceives it as a necessity, rather than a diminution.”

Kennedy, D-Davison, called the trend “a travesty.”

“I’m super-concerned about it,” Kennedy said. “But it’s a reality. Often, superintendents have to make choices between putting certified teachers in special ed classrooms or regular classrooms .... because there’s such a shortage of certified teachers.”

No quick fix

Education experts say that the quality of the teaching staff is the biggest in-school determinant of student success. "The research shows that kids who have two, three, four strong teachers in a row will eventually excel, no matter what their background, while kids who have even two weak teachers in a row will never recover," wrote Kati Haycock, founder of  The Education Trust,a nonpartisan Washington, D.C.-based group that works to cut achievement gaps in students.

Teaching involves more than knowing a course’s subject matter. An engineer may know the ins and outs of algebra, but might not know how best to demonstrate that knowledge to fidgeting middle-schoolers. Experts say that strategies taught in university teacher prep programs are generally critical to learning effective classroom skills. 

Numerous education and political leaders acknowledge that the mass use of long-term substitutes threatens to hobble the state’s drive to improve education, but that they see few quick fixes. 

“We (the Legislature) talk about the teacher shortage, and MDE says we need to stop talking down about teachers,” said Kennedy, the teacher-turned-lawmaker. “It’s such a basic thing to say.

“But we also need to pay teachers appropriately so young people who want to be teachers can pay their $80,000 in student loans,” Kennedy said.

Brad Paquette, R-Berrien Springs, was a teacher in Niles before joining the Legislature. He said he saw a lot of colleagues leave the profession because of pay, and because classroom teaching bears little resemblance to the theoretical lessons learned in university education programs.

Paquette has his own story about being a substitute. He had just graduated from college and he applied to be a substitute teacher in Benton Harbor to earn a few dollars, Paquette said. “They saw I’d worked at Taco Bell in high school and said I was the new nutrition teacher,” Paquette said. 

Later, when school officials learned he had minored in Spanish in college, he was named the Spanish teacher.

“That lasted about a week,” Paquette said with a laugh, “until MDE found out.”

Today, with teacher shortages more severe and long-term substitutes more accepted, MDE might not have stepped in to stop Paquette from taking those posts.

But Paquette said Michigan’s education problems go far beyond long-term substitutes. 

“Maybe we need to rethink what an education system is,” Paquette said. “Our public schools are nothing like the real world.”

MDE’s Breen said the state needs to find a way to incentivize teachers to live and work in urban and rural areas of the state. That could involve paying teachers more in hard-to-staff areas; student loan forgiveness, housing stipends and child care subsidies.

Those things take money. A statement from Gov. Gretchen Whitmer’s office in response to a query about the growth in long-term substitutes referred to the Democratic governor’s plan to offer more funding for students with greater needs, such as low-income students and English-language learners.

The increase in long-term substitutes ‒- particularly among students who need the most help ‒ should be ringing alarm bells across the state, said Peter Haines, superintendent of Ottawa Intermediate School District.

“This is systemic discrimination,” Haines said. “Parents are bringing their children to our schools with hope. 

“The least we can do is meet them at the door with a qualified teacher."

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Comments

Jim tomlinson
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 8:49am

Gop grand strategy to go with for profit low expertise ed.

Gail J
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:26am

It's no wonder for anyone paying attention. Low pay, lack of supplies (teachers buying classroom supplies) looking for materials at garage sales/flea market and auctions, dealing with poor building maintenance, bad water, increased demands to test, larger class sizes, lack of support staff including para-pros, nurses, counselors, special education, and psychologists. Don't forget demands to get additional training every summer, and jump on the latest "new thing " in education. There are numerous other factors why talented, well-trained staff are leaving the profession in droves. The same reasons new graduates don't last long and others change majors while still in college. Michigan legislators ca re more about what Betsy DeVos says than what their public school employees have been saying for a decade.

Chris Carpenter
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:17am

Can any liberal or teacher bring up education without taking a cheap shot at Betsy DeVos. The DeVos family has donated more money for Art and to help education than all liberal politicians together. The other thing cheap shot are Charter Schools (Some excellent, many good, some average and some are poor)
It would be better if people (Liberals & Conservatives) worked together to come up with funds for supplies for teachers, money for more support staff. Great if some foundation donated money to pay off students loans for staff in areas with staff shortages.

Bones
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:31pm

What an absolute joke. The DeVos family has destroyed public education in Michigan through their support of the charter schools and libertarian politics.

Paul Jordan
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:53pm

Read the article. All the evidence concerning charter schools is there.
Facts: Michigan has the greatest proportion of charter schools in the country. For-profit charter schools must lower costs to realize a profit. Long-term subs with no to minimal qualifications and training will work for much less money than qualified teachers. The greater the proportion of long-term subs in a school, the lower the academic performance of the students.

James
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 2:15pm

Paul, Michigan does not have the greatest proportion of charter schools in the country. Facts matter!

Jack
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 4:12pm

That might be true, but it is my understanding that the "charter laws" are not particularly strict. Feel free to correct me.

Jack Atkinson
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:44am

Here's my story...after 15 years as an administrator at a large university just west of US 23, I was laid off...at age 56. As I applied for positions at said school, I took up substitute teaching. I had had a long standing interest in being a teacher, so this was pretty cool. Anyway, as my job search was going nowhere (lots of silver medals, but no gold), I researched alternative teacher certification programs, and found one in Livonia.
These programs are no cakewalk; they are fast paced, and they require follow up coursework (in the summer) after you receive your "interim" certification. Anyway, as I finished the first part in December of '17, and I live in western Washtenaw County, the market wasn't too fruitful, so I took a long term sub gig...in special ed. At the time, or so I was told, to be a LTS you needed at least an interim cert. Also, the state is so desperate for special ed/needs instructors that it seems to take little more than a pulse to get a job; they very much relaxed the rules. So, I did that, and then was out of work again. Finally, I spent this past year...back in special ed, and was not rehired, so I'm back to job searching.
Closer to the original issue. When they talk about a "teacher shortage," you really do have to dig into the numbers. There are your "go-to districts," which I also call "destination spots." You typically have to have experience or an inside contact (small towns tend to be rather incestuous), but even the larger communities (Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti) really do not have many postings for "classroom teachers." There are websites for local "consortia," who pool their information, easily found on google (Washtenaw consortium, Lenawee consortium, Ingham consortium). I'd say that 75% of the jobs are in some form of special education. Detroit itself (a near impossible drive for me) is loaded with charter schools, many of which remind me of store-front churches (Michigan has very relaxed charter laws). My assumption is that, with lots of these schools that are relying on LTS, they are very low-grade charters and/or are places unwilling to pay a remotely competitive wage or offer decent benefits.

Bob G
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:18am

This story overlooks the unintended consequences of changes in state law in enacted to prevent public employees from so-called "double-dipping" -- retiring and then returning to their same role on a contract basis. The net effect was to severely reduce the number of highly qualified recently retired educators in the long-term substitute-teacher pool -- because if you sub too much your pension gets cut.
Here's a story from back when politicians decided to act to prevent double-dipping:
https://www.cnbc.com/id/44741907
And here's how it impacts Michigan's retired teachers:
https://www.michigan.gov/orsschools/0,4653,7-206-36502_36516-327160--,00...

Jack Strappagance
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:49am

Fairly typical Bridge story: "Michigan sucks because of (fill in the topic)." You obviously view that as your mission, but it's getting tiresome. You spend so much time telling us why this state is awful at everything, and very little on either solutions or why this state is special and maybe even GOOD in some ways.

There are 2,500 long-term subs in Michigan, but unless I missed it, you gave us exactly ONE name of who these people are. You're trying to paint them all as just warm bodies they hauled in off the street, but I doubt that's the case. Perhaps that would have destroyed the narrative you were trying to create, but it would have been nice to meet some of these people and hear their stories.

Alexandra Schmidt
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:24pm

Hi Jack,

You can hear stories from two teachers in one of our other stories published on this topic today right there: https://www.bridgemi.com/talent-education/how-wedding-planner-became-uncertified-michigan-teacher-15-hour

Additionally, here's a story featuring the persepctive of a charter school principal who relies on long term subs, as well as a few more subs and their stories: https://www.bridgemi.com/talent-education/north-charter-44-percent-subs-you-cant-tell-difference-supt-says

Thanks for reading and your interest in comprehensive coverage!

- Alexandra Schmidt, Public Engagement Reporter

Jack Strappagance
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 2:17pm

Thank you, Alexandra. I hadn't seen those when I posted my first comment. I'm glad you got a little more perspective in there. It looks like you told the stories of four long-term subs out of the 2,500.

***
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:20am

Should school districts and charters be required to disclose how many of their teachers are long term substitutes without the normal education background? Most parents and students I'm sure have no idea. This could open a huge can of worms and a PR nightmare for schools.

Kevin Grand
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:38am

Based on what I've read in these articles, a better question tbat should be asked is why the certification requirements are there in the first place?

Note: I did not say anything about background checks.

You've cited several examples with college education, but not the "right" college education for the open positions. Not exactly a glowing endorsement in a parallel push to get people to attend college here in Michigan.

If you have someone with the drive and desire to be a teacher, just make it easier to drop the substitute part.of their job title. Or better yet, just drop that hoop altogether.

Bones
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:37pm

Teaching involves so much more than just standing at the head of a class, but none of that matters to the libertarian brain trusts who know that deregulation is the answer to every problem

Kevin Grand
Sat, 08/10/2019 - 11:34am

Your reading comprehension is as spot on as it always is, Bones.

Mind telling everyone exactly why someone with a Bachelors or Masters degree is completely incapable of instructing a class on GRADE SCHOOL science?

This should be good...

Paul Jordan
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:45pm

The best clue to people's true motives is their behavior. The best clue to the true motive/goal regarding public education of the anti-government Republicans who have dominated Michigan's government for the past 30+ years is the fact that Michigan's K-12 education system has become one of the worst in the nation. Based on that, their goal has been to effectively destroy public education--because they have done so.
We have a teacher shortage because of the continual erosion of pay & benefits, and disrespect that Michigan's Republican-dominated government has inflicted on teachers. And we elected them, so the fault is ultimately ours. They think that what we want is to pay as little as possible in taxes, and they have delivered. What we have gotten is a government that provides us with mediocre public services, poor roads, and a devastated K-12 education system.
If we value our grandchildren and the future of our state, what is needed is for US to call out small government politicians for the right wing anarchists that they are--and elect people who actually want government to work for us.

Christian Young
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 7:18pm

I totally agree, and this whole thing is troubling. On another note, you're just going to leave my quotes on the cutting room floor, Ron?

C
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:04pm

Yet- this article doesn’t mention that the state has CTE courses for students who want to be teachers and there is a movement beginning for districts to “grow their own” teachers by utilizing these CTE programs.

Jennifer Vingsness
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:16pm

The box that shows how many subs are in each district is substantially incorrect in the 2 districts I checked. The numbers shown appear to be the total teaching staff employed by the districts.