Michigan leans on long-term substitutes as its schools struggle

Long-term substitute Kathleen Van Fossen

 Kathleen Van Fossan plans to become a long-term substitute first-grade teacher this fall at Charlton Heston Academy in St. Helen, where 44 percent of classrooms were led by long-term subs - who aren’t certified teachers - last year. (Bridge photo by Ron French)

One applied for jobs at a county road commission and as an office manager before unexpectedly being offered a teaching post.

Another was an assistant basketball coach before walking into an elementary school classroom.

A third was a wedding planner before teaching fifth-grade math and science. 

None of them were certified teachers when they were assigned full-time teaching posts in Michigan classrooms. None majored in education in college.

About this project

A rising number of Michigan public schools are staffing classrooms with long-term substitutes with as little as 60 college credits and no formal education training. Bridge examines the implications of this practice for the state’s already-struggling schools. 

Wednesday


​Thursday

More than 2,500 Michigan classrooms were led by long-term substitutes who weren’t certified teachers in the 2018-19 school year – a stunning tenfold increase in just five years that threatens to hobble efforts to improve the state’s K-12 public education system, a Bridge Magazine analysis shows.

Students who need good teachers the most – low-income and academically struggling students – are the most likely to be stuck with long-term substitutes who aren’t required to have a four-year degree or any teacher training.

Check how many long-term substitutes are in your school district or charter 

Interviews with more than three-dozen school officials, education leaders, teachers and long-term substitutes describe a well-intentioned, stopgap measure designed to fill a few slots during a statewide teacher shortage that has metastasized into a policy that has seen some schools staff more than half their classrooms with long-term substitutes.

The policy ‒ allowing people with as few as 60 college credits in any subject to teach a class for a full year ‒ is now viewed as a “necessity” by the Michigan Department of Education to plug holes in schools that didn’t exist a decade ago. School and state leaders say they hope the use of long-term substitutes to staff classrooms is a temporary fix until the state addresses its teacher shortage. 

But with no statewide policy efforts on the horizon to address the shortage of teachers in urban and rural regions of the state, it’s not clear how temporary the fix will be.

Having more Michigan classrooms led by untrained teachers because of a teacher shortage is “putting a Band-Aid on a wound,” said Elizabeth Birr Moje, dean of the University of Michigan’s School of Education. “It stops the bleeding, but doesn’t address the underlying problem.”

A traditional teacher certification in Michigan requires a bachelor’s degree in a teachable subject, completion of a teacher preparation program, student teaching experience and passing teacher certification tests that measure general and subject matter knowledge. There are also one-year, alternative certification programs for career professionals looking to move into education from other fields.

 

Michigan’s increased reliance on long-term substitutes who often have little or no education training is severe in some areas of the state. Several Detroit charter schools appear to have been staffed completely by long-term substitute teachers this past school year, according to a Bridge analysis of state data. 

At Benton Harbor Area Schools, where Gov. Gretchen Whitmer has threatened to close the high school because of poor academic performance, 42 percent of classrooms were staffed by long-term substitutes during the past school year.

Yet long-term subs are rare in wealthy, suburban schools, the data show.

The state cannot have "expectations that are different based on the ZIP code you are coming from," said Nikolai Vitti, superintendent of the Detroit Public Schools Community District. The district had 92 long-term subs last year, less than 3 percent of the 3,500-member teaching staff.  

To have “more than 50 percent of your faculty being long-term subs, that's unacceptable,” Vitti said.

According to Bridge’s analysis:

  • Students attending low-income school districts and charters were three times more likely to have a classroom led by a long-term substitute than students in other districts.

  • Charter school students were four times more likely to have a long-term substitute than students in traditional public schools.

  • Students in the lowest academic-performing school districts and charters were more than three times more likely to have long-term substitutes instead of certified teachers.

  • Sixteen charter school districts have more than half of their classrooms staffed with long-term substitutes; 25 charters and the Benton Harbor schools have more than 40 percent long-term subs.

How many long-term subs in your district?

Use this tool to see how many subs are in a district and the percent of teaching slots held by long-term subs. You can put any part of a district’s name in the search box. Charter schools are denoted with an asterisk.

School (*charter schools)TeachersLong-term subs
2016-172017-182018-192016-172017-182018-19
Keys Grace Academy*
488 students
99% poor
2529250%0%0%
Muskegon Heights Public School Academy System*
644 students
93.5% poor
6769508.7%7.5%6.1%
Multicultural Academy*
171 students
92.4% poor
2313150%8.7%20%
Eaton Academy*
346 students
78.6% poor
28232113%0%61.9%
Midland Academy of Advanced and Creative Studies*
154 students
31.2% poor
16191431.6%19.2%59.3%
Francis Street Primary School*
32 students
100% poor
0020%0%0%
Benton Harbor Area Schools
1,941 students
82.9% poor
1241189732.3%13.7%42.3%
Waldron Area Schools
211 students
66.4% poor
20242112.3%5%38.2%
Powell Township Schools
35 students
62.9% poor
6660%0%33.3%
Mid Peninsula School District
174 students
65.5% poor
1311120%24%32.6%
Big Bay De Noc School District
165 students
69.1% poor
19151620.3%21.4%31.4%
Outlook Academy*
53 students
81.1% poor
7660%0%0%
Troy School District
13,150 students
15.4% poor
8128228410%0.1%0%
South Lyon Community Schools
8,697 students
17.2% poor
4965215100%0%0%
Plymouth Scholars Charter Academy*
769 students
12.5% poor
4248456.3%0%6.6%
Achieve Charter Academy*
763 students
14.3% poor
3847424.3%7.8%4.7%
Detroit Leadership Academy*
796 students
96.6% poor
28273725.9%0%52.1%
Beaver Island Community School
49 students
46.9% poor
119100%0%0%
Colfax Township S/D #1F
19 students
68.4% poor
1110%0%0%
Chandler Woods Charter Academy*
779 students
21.8% poor
4243440%0%2.3%
Rockford Public Schools
7,987 students
17% poor
4644704830%0%0%
Rochester Community School District
15,451 students
11.4% poor
8568768851.4%0.7%0.8%
Novi Community School District
6,698 students
9% poor
4414404610%0.2%0%
Bloomfield Hills Schools
5,506 students
11.4% poor
4334434380.2%0%0%
Byron Center Public Schools
4,157 students
26.4% poor
1992012060%0%0%
Northville Public Schools
7,375 students
6.6% poor
4444414380%0%0%
Inkster Preparatory Academy*
180 students
89.4% poor
78825%0%50%
Saline Area Schools
5,296 students
12.8% poor
3173323510.3%0%0%
Riverside Academy*
999 students
99% poor
6568667.4%1.6%37.9%
Forest Hills Public Schools
9,774 students
11.8% poor
5765865660.5%0.3%0.4%
North Saginaw Charter Academy*
512 students
96.9% poor
4446374.3%0%35.2%
Ann Arbor Public Schools
18,055 students
25% poor
1,1511,3431,3800.4%0.3%0.3%
St. Joseph Public Schools
3,003 students
31% poor
1561531580.7%0.6%1.3%
Caledonia Community Schools
4,840 students
18.6% poor
2602802880%0.4%0%
Haslett Public Schools
2,685 students
26% poor
1651741780%0%0.6%
Okemos Public Schools
4,552 students
20.1% poor
2762792910%0.7%0%
South Canton Scholars Charter Academy*
780 students
27.2% poor
4952531.9%0%3.8%
Houghton-Portage Township School District
1,409 students
30.1% poor
8388911.1%0%1.1%
Hudsonville Public School District
6,855 students
20.4% poor
3793894110.5%0%0.2%
Birmingham Public Schools
8,072 students
8.8% poor
6246476600.2%0%0.5%
Schoolcraft Community Schools
1,066 students
28.7% poor
5970650%0%0%
Dexter Community School District
3,661 students
11.3% poor
2452692680%2%0.4%
Williamston Community Schools
1,879 students
22.4% poor
961001050%2.1%1%
Lakeshore School District (Berrien)
2,785 students
30.7% poor
1691741740%0%1.2%
Brighton Area Schools
5,998 students
13.9% poor
3293433589.3%11.6%9.2%
Bedford Public Schools
4,324 students
19.9% poor
2372402360%0.4%0.4%
Saugatuck Public Schools
836 students
36% poor
5253520%0%0%
Lake Orion Community Schools
7,357 students
23.5% poor
4474324450.2%0%0%
Merritt Academy*
552 students
50.4% poor
6066643.1%1.7%3.1%
East Grand Rapids Public Schools
2,886 students
6% poor
1621711830%0%0%
Plymouth-Canton Community Schools
17,491 students
20.5% poor
9429101,0080.8%0.4%0.3%
Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools
457 students
55.4% poor
3236400%0%0%
Jenison Public Schools
5,094 students
30.9% poor
3003183360%1%0.6%
Grand Haven Area Public Schools
6,064 students
32% poor
3843813871%0.3%0.3%
DeWitt Public Schools
3,197 students
18.5% poor
1621671770%0%0%
Chelsea School District
2,443 students
14% poor
1511551580.6%0%0%
Les Cheneaux Community Schools
224 students
46.9% poor
1818215.6%5.6%4.9%
Hartland Consolidated Schools
5,482 students
16.9% poor
2833053180.3%1.4%2.5%
Berkley School District
4,377 students
18.1% poor
2792822889.2%3.9%13.2%
Excel Charter Academy*
774 students
51.3% poor
4349490%0%0%
Vanguard Charter Academy*
778 students
52.8% poor
4145460%0%0%
Walker Charter Academy*
739 students
45.2% poor
4343432.3%0%2.3%
Lowell Area Schools
3,809 students
30.6% poor
2092002120%0.5%0%
Hamilton Community Schools
2,729 students
27.1% poor
1511591630%0.7%1.8%
Wayland Union Schools
3,057 students
38.8% poor
1641681740%1.2%0%
Spring Lake Public Schools
2,468 students
17.7% poor
1391411441.4%0.7%0%
Dundee Community Schools
1,663 students
37.6% poor
8384870%2.4%0%
Marysville Public Schools
2,770 students
31.6% poor
1401481480%0.7%0%
Walled Lake Consolidated Schools
13,642 students
26.1% poor
7657687680.4%0.5%0.9%
Portage Public Schools
8,804 students
25.4% poor
5034975060%0%0%
ACE Academy (SDA)*
186 students
100% poor
161260%25%31.7%
Mattawan Consolidated School
3,756 students
18% poor
2072282351.3%0.5%1.3%
Pentwater Public School District
259 students
49.4% poor
1818180%0%0%
Grosse Ile Township Schools
1,819 students
10.9% poor
1031031130%0%0%
Glen Lake Community Schools
660 students
28.2% poor
5355540%1.9%0%
Zeeland Public Schools
6,241 students
26.2% poor
3463523740.3%0.6%0.5%
Grosse Pointe Public Schools
7,652 students
18.8% poor
5545335450.8%0.4%0.6%
Allendale Public Schools
2,700 students
30.2% poor
1541531650%0%0%
New Buffalo Area Schools
545 students
42% poor
5855550%0%0%
Hopkins Public Schools
1,657 students
38.5% poor
8888940%0%0%
Bridgman Public Schools
908 students
43.2% poor
7170720%2.8%0%
Rising Stars Academy*
125 students
93.6% poor
4260%0%0%
Anchor Bay School District
5,938 students
25.1% poor
3143133120%0%0%
Frankenmuth School District
1,319 students
20.5% poor
5366681.5%0%0%
Otsego Public Schools
2,330 students
40% poor
1231341440%0%0%
Trenton Public Schools
2,557 students
23.4% poor
1711741740%0%0%
Freeland Community School District
2,012 students
17.4% poor
941071100%0%0%
Linden Community Schools
2,713 students
27.1% poor
1481451480%0%1.4%
Grandville Public Schools
5,666 students
21.8% poor
3083313170%0%0.3%
Clarkston Community School District
7,334 students
21.3% poor
4644744733.4%0.4%6.3%
The Dearborn Academy*
509 students
99.4% poor
50494330.7%25.9%30%
Edwardsburg Public Schools
2,742 students
31.5% poor
1361341460%1.5%0.7%
Pewamo-Westphalia Community Schools
676 students
19.8% poor
3435340%0%0%
Coopersville Area Public School District
2,655 students
41.4% poor
1381411440%0%0.7%
Mason Public Schools (Ingham)
3,226 students
32.1% poor
1841871920.5%0.5%0%
Grand Ledge Public Schools
5,328 students
28% poor
3092943170.7%1%1.3%
East Lansing School District
3,607 students
33.9% poor
2212262180%0%0.9%
Almont Community Schools
1,456 students
25.5% poor
7577811.3%1.3%1.2%
International Academy of Flint*
917 students
84.3% poor
63505424.2%1.6%27.5%
Midland Public Schools
7,642 students
33.2% poor
4384404400.5%0.2%0.9%
Armada Area Schools
1,762 students
22% poor
8994900%0%0%
New Lothrop Area Public Schools
916 students
24.7% poor
5246460%0%4.3%
Bullock Creek School District
1,833 students
40% poor
1111081180%0%0%
Vicksburg Community Schools
2,660 students
34.7% poor
1551551600%0%0%
Yale Public Schools
1,912 students
41.1% poor
1031011040%0%0%
Swan Valley School District
1,801 students
38.2% poor
94981011%0%0%
Mason Consolidated Schools (Monroe)
1,027 students
48.5% poor
6966650%0%0%
Oxford Community Schools
5,589 students
24.7% poor
3123163370.9%1.9%0.9%
Harbor Springs School District
801 students
22.8% poor
5857590%0%0%
Public Schools of Petoskey
2,792 students
38.8% poor
1551531580%0%0%
Crawford AuSable Schools
1,571 students
56.9% poor
1061071080.9%1.9%1.9%
Keystone Academy*
779 students
37.4% poor
47485510.4%2.1%14.5%
Whiteford Agricultural School District of the Counties of Lenawee and Monroe
752 students
28.5% poor
3944450%2.5%6.6%
Plainwell Community Schools
2,780 students
29% poor
1541591560%0%1.3%
North Muskegon Public Schools
1,047 students
26.9% poor
6063710%1.7%0%
Livonia Public Schools School District
14,184 students
33.8% poor
8548869160.2%0%0.2%
Hancock Public Schools
701 students
47.6% poor
54464810.8%1.9%8.4%
Goodrich Area Schools
2,053 students
22.1% poor
991081110.9%0%0%
Chesaning Union Schools
1,447 students
52.4% poor
8485881.2%0%1.1%
Kingsley Area Schools
1,557 students
44.2% poor
7778811.3%0%0%
Chippewa Valley Schools
16,061 students
29.8% poor
8508368551.2%0.6%0.9%
McBain Rural Agricultural Schools
1,028 students
47.8% poor
5657573.5%1.8%0%
St. Johns Public Schools
2,799 students
34.7% poor
1601541570.7%0.6%0.6%
Elk Rapids Schools
1,264 students
36.9% poor
7068700%0%0%
Chatfield School*
486 students
26.1% poor
2728280%0%0%
Flagship Charter Academy*
698 students
98.1% poor
5253499.5%1.9%26.7%
Fowler Public Schools
480 students
27.1% poor
2524270%0%0%
Romeo Community Schools
5,042 students
24.7% poor
2822842950.4%0.7%0.3%
Grand Traverse Academy*
896 students
25.8% poor
7174814%0%6.1%
Huron Valley Schools
8,987 students
27.3% poor
5205355220.4%0.4%0.4%
Kingsbury Country Day School*
291 students
9.3% poor
19192510.5%21.5%4%
Royal Oak Schools
4,995 students
23.6% poor
3203283530.3%0.6%0.6%
Johannesburg-Lewiston Area Schools
697 students
56.8% poor
4041420%2.5%0%
Sparta Area Schools
2,500 students
47.9% poor
1411441462.1%0%0%
Honey Creek Community School*
242 students
9.1% poor
1920205.1%0%0%
Sigel Township S/D #4F
31 students
64.5% poor
1120%0%0%
Lakewood Public Schools
1,778 students
45.7% poor
1031031090%0%0%
Byron Center Charter School*
245 students
42.4% poor
2319210%0%0%
Public Schools of Calumet, Laurium & Keweenaw
1,519 students
54% poor
92928716.3%1.1%18.4%
Ovid-Elsie Area Schools
1,524 students
45.7% poor
7476840%0%0%
Farmington Public School District
9,539 students
26.2% poor
6456406560.5%0.3%0.3%
Onekama Consolidated Schools
415 students
53.5% poor
23272511.2%0%24.1%
Michigan Educational Choice Center*
263 students
100% poor
7240890%0%125%
Utica Community Schools
26,894 students
38.1% poor
1,4581,4481,4520.4%0.2%0.1%
Cass City Public Schools
968 students
51.7% poor
5353563.8%0%0%
Columbia School District
1,473 students
45.6% poor
8183820%0%0%
Black River Public School*
944 students
23.8% poor
7473730%1.4%0%
Verona Township S/D #1F
21 students
38.1% poor
1210%0%0%
Linden Charter Academy*
791 students
98.1% poor
51584913.7%7.9%26.5%
Cadillac Area Public Schools
3,136 students
60.9% poor
1611641650.6%0.6%0%
West Bloomfield School District
5,476 students
34.6% poor
3223353610.3%0.3%0.6%
Traverse City Area Public Schools
9,433 students
36% poor
4924874862.5%2.2%1.6%
Lakeview Public Schools (Macomb)
4,375 students
42.4% poor
2252272360.4%0%1.3%
Boyne City Public Schools
1,349 students
49.4% poor
7679810%0%5%
Old Redford Academy*
1,784 students
75.9% poor
13011310911.5%3.1%24%
Napoleon Community Schools
1,314 students
44.9% poor
6871720%1.5%0%
Hamtramck Academy*
537 students
98.3% poor
4547474.2%2.2%4.2%
Fairview Area School District
298 students
73.8% poor
1818220%0%4.6%
Birch Run Area Schools
1,871 students
51.6% poor
981001010%0%0%
Milan Area Schools
2,173 students
33.3% poor
1301261300%0%0%
Davison Community Schools
5,723 students
44.3% poor
2902962930%0.3%1%
Charlevoix Public Schools
872 students
43.9% poor
6061560%0%3.5%
Howell Public Schools
6,973 students
27.4% poor
4044023850.2%0.2%0.8%
Vanderbilt Charter Academy*
463 students
73.9% poor
3333373%0%0%
West MI Academy of Arts and Academics*
439 students
39.9% poor
3845402.2%5.3%0%
Charlotte Public Schools
2,467 students
43.2% poor
1541391490%0.7%0.7%
Whitehall District Schools
2,078 students
45.2% poor
1651651712.4%1.2%0.6%
Stephenson Area Public Schools
490 students
55.3% poor
3632270%0%0%
Detroit Innovation Academy*
393 students
97.2% poor
15131723.1%33.3%23.5%
Bad Axe Public Schools
957 students
50.9% poor
5555540%0%0%
Sault Ste. Marie Area Schools
2,023 students
55.7% poor
1261341423.7%3.2%2.8%
Thornapple Kellogg School District
3,157 students
33.9% poor
1501601700.6%0.7%0%
Timbuktu Academy*
436 students
100% poor
17141121.4%5.9%100%
Marquette Area Public Schools
3,285 students
29.3% poor
2062062250.5%0%0%
Blue Water Middle College*
391 students
19.2% poor
00190%0%0%
Northview Public Schools
3,327 students
41.9% poor
2392322230.4%0%0%
Ida Public School District
1,442 students
20.6% poor
8074760%0%0%
Breitung Township School District
1,893 students
43.1% poor
1021051130.9%1%1.8%
Gull Lake Community Schools
3,231 students
23.8% poor
1992172240%0%1.3%
Olivet Community Schools
1,413 students
37.1% poor
8183850%0%0%
Pathways Academy*
148 students
98.6% poor
4450%0%100%
Mackinaw City Public Schools
153 students
47.1% poor
1616160%0%0%
Harbor Beach Community Schools
475 students
46.5% poor
3231340%0%0%
Triumph Academy*
728 students
54.9% poor
3942420%0%14.3%
Grand Blanc Community Schools
8,260 students
34.3% poor
4444514860.2%0.2%0.8%
Nottawa Community School
116 students
31.9% poor
11111018.1%0%9.8%
Joseph K. Lumsden Bahweting Anishnabe Academy*
579 students
63% poor
5552581.9%3.6%12.1%
Madison School District (Lenawee)
1,652 students
57.8% poor
991011011%1%0%
Oakland Academy*
165 students
40.6% poor
2218110%0%0%
Grand Rapids Child Discovery Center*
272 students
45.2% poor
1515180%0%0%
Ludington Area School District
2,106 students
52.4% poor
1151201190.8%0.9%0%
Grass Lake Community Schools
1,294 students
28.3% poor
7876800%0%1.3%
Gobles Public School District
772 students
58.3% poor
5256625.3%5.8%3.2%
West Branch-Rose City Area Schools
2,043 students
60.5% poor
1221221290.8%0.8%6.2%
Portland Public Schools
2,119 students
32.7% poor
1191201130%0.8%0%
North Dickinson County Schools
250 students
47.6% poor
16191710.8%18.4%5.8%
Elkton-Pigeon-Bay Port Laker Schools
914 students
51% poor
5354569.3%5.6%5.4%
Cedar Springs Public Schools
3,516 students
41.2% poor
1831961980%0.5%0%
East China School District
4,102 students
32.8% poor
2372372451.3%0.4%0.4%
Universal Academy*
728 students
98.4% poor
43413356.3%35.3%91.1%
Negaunee Public Schools
1,583 students
33.2% poor
10099980%0%0%
South Pointe Scholars Charter Academy*
757 students
51.8% poor
5154543.7%0%16.6%
Concord Academy - Boyne*
158 students
44.3% poor
1618170%0%11.9%
Tawas Area Schools
1,248 students
52.1% poor
6767710%0%0%
Greenville Public Schools
3,729 students
56.7% poor
2122202152.3%2.8%1.9%
NICE Community School District
1,197 students
35.9% poor
8082810%0%0%
West Ottawa Public School District
6,712 students
55% poor
4214194190.5%0.2%0.5%
Chassell Township School District
263 students
35.7% poor
1617195.9%12.5%5.4%
Blissfield Community Schools
1,209 students
36.9% poor
6163720%0%0%
Greater Heights Academy*
262 students
97.3% poor
18182334.1%22.3%22.1%
Byron Area Schools
835 students
37.2% poor
5148440%0%2.3%
Muskegon Montessori Academy for Environmental Change*
148 students
74.3% poor
7890%0%0%
Fraser Public Schools
4,978 students
45.4% poor
2922932920%0%0.3%
Gaylord Community Schools
3,054 students
52.9% poor
1621611680%0.6%0%
DeTour Arts and Technology Academy*
82 students
58.5% poor
612160%0%0%
North Central Area Schools
336 students
56% poor
2425260%0%0%
Woodhaven-Brownstown School District
5,485 students
45.2% poor
3203433250.3%0%0%
Avondale School District
3,779 students
45.1% poor
2132382772.1%1.4%2.2%
Crossroads Charter Academy*
595 students
57.1% poor
4644456.8%2.2%4.4%
Detroit Edison Public School Academy*
1,287 students
66.5% poor
6175594%4.9%17.1%
Lapeer Community Schools
4,942 students
50.4% poor
2832672730%0%0%
Western School District
2,952 students
36.9% poor
1571611600%0%0%
Croswell-Lexington Community Schools
2,148 students
52.4% poor
1151111110%3.5%2.7%
Bath Community Schools
1,155 students
45.7% poor
6063580%0%0%
River Valley School District
578 students
56.9% poor
4648532.1%0%1.9%
Lake Fenton Community Schools
2,078 students
28.9% poor
1041081140%1%0.9%
Hanover-Horton School District
1,135 students
36.7% poor
5455560%0%1.8%
Fenton Area Public Schools
3,448 students
32.6% poor
1911951970%0%0%
Bangor Township S/D #8
21 students
61.9% poor
2220%0%0%
Flushing Community Schools
4,182 students
41.8% poor
2282272250%0%0%
L'Anse Creuse Public Schools
10,392 students
41.9% poor
5555505630.5%0.2%1.2%
Fortis Academy*
745 students
79.1% poor
5146470%2%12.6%
Algonac Community School District
1,475 students
45.8% poor
8580780%0%0%
Tecumseh Public Schools
2,784 students
34.1% poor
1631761700.6%0%0%
Holly Area School District
3,307 students
42% poor
1972002100%0.5%0%
Mona Shores Public School District
3,895 students
48.2% poor
2192202210.5%0%0.5%
Buchanan Community Schools
1,573 students
53.3% poor
961001030%0%0%
Mt. Clemens Montessori Academy*
326 students
37.4% poor
2625214%0%4.7%
North Branch Area Schools
2,353 students
47.4% poor
1331261290%0.8%3.1%
Stockbridge Community Schools
1,249 students
40.8% poor
8292920%1.2%3.3%
Memphis Community Schools
836 students
33.6% poor
5157560%0%0%
Clawson Public Schools
1,556 students
38% poor
1151241180%0.9%0.8%
Martin Public Schools
613 students
54.3% poor
3941402.4%2.5%2.5%
Laingsburg Community Schools
1,125 students
27.4% poor
6059630%3.3%3.2%
Lake Linden-Hubbell School District
409 students
58.4% poor
3735345.7%0%0%
Ionia Public Schools
3,017 students
57.3% poor
1691661590%0%0%
Lakeside Charter School - Kalamazoo*
244 students
99.6% poor
1310190%0%21.6%
Hastings Area School District
2,659 students
48.1% poor
1441491400%0.7%0%
Leland Public School District
522 students
37% poor
3641480%0%0%
Ridge Park Charter Academy*
562 students
84.2% poor
4547420%0%0%
Light of the World Academy*
232 students
15.5% poor
1013170%0%0%
East Arbor Charter Academy*
694 students
53.2% poor
5555571.8%3.7%10.5%
Forest Park School District
440 students
53% poor
2830340%0%0%
Roscommon Area Public Schools
927 students
61.2% poor
6569661.5%0%0%
Kent City Community Schools
1,296 students
60.4% poor
7384870%0%0%
Paragon Charter Academy*
678 students
62.1% poor
4242417.2%7.1%2.4%
Bellaire Public Schools
356 students
44.7% poor
2429290%0%0%
Ubly Community Schools
651 students
45.9% poor
4341402.5%0%2.5%
Lighthouse Connections Academy*
274 students
73% poor
0080%0%0%
Saginaw Township Community Schools
4,803 students
47.9% poor
2722752810.4%0%0.7%
Manistique Area Schools
816 students
56.5% poor
5048524.2%0%3.9%
Reeths-Puffer Schools
3,710 students
45.7% poor
2282302300%0%0.9%
Vista Meadows Academy*
100 students
100% poor
116950%0%78.2%
St. Charles Community Schools
913 students
51.2% poor
4763620%0%0%
Holt Public Schools
5,532 students
43.6% poor
3333293330%0%0%
Taylor Exemplar Academy*
792 students
71% poor
5251573.9%1.9%7%
Dansville Schools
730 students
31.2% poor
4440410%2.3%2.4%
Mt. Pleasant City School District
3,485 students
43.7% poor
2702642680.8%1.1%0%
Clinton Community Schools
1,221 students
35% poor
6561730%0%1.4%
Knapp Charter Academy*
745 students
68.9% poor
4443502.3%0%4%
Hemlock Public School District
1,213 students
32.3% poor
7069674.4%0%4.5%
Kentwood Public Schools
9,284 students
72.7% poor
5045665860%0%0.3%
Iron Mountain Public Schools
883 students
48.9% poor
4546506.5%8.8%6.1%
Central Academy*
605 students
90.4% poor
34353517.1%14.6%20.1%
Leslie Public Schools
1,233 students
51.2% poor
8781810%1.1%0%
Sand Creek Community Schools
842 students
44.9% poor
5058600%0%1.7%
Bangor Township Schools
2,541 students
58.3% poor
1231261290%0%0%
Summerfield Schools
625 students
31.4% poor
3835380%0%0%
Posen Consolidated School District No. 9
213 students
59.6% poor
16141729%19.4%17.9%
Marshall Public Schools
2,793 students
44.6% poor
1771891900%0%0%
Montrose Community Schools
1,472 students
60.3% poor
8182790%1.2%0%
Gladstone Area Schools
1,538 students
40.8% poor
7878830%0%0%
Three Rivers Community Schools
2,564 students
56.4% poor
1521571560.6%1.3%1.3%
Creative Technologies Academy*
318 students
37.7% poor
2222224.6%4.5%4.5%
Durand Area Schools
1,316 students
54.9% poor
8589890%0%0%
Bessemer Area School District
408 students
59.1% poor
26273214.6%3.8%15.8%
Brown City Community Schools
778 students
58.1% poor
4644460%0%0%
Kenowa Hills Public Schools
3,137 students
49.4% poor
1791781890%0.6%0%
Lawton Community School District
978 students
55.7% poor
6263620%0%0%
Concord Academy - Petoskey*
180 students
53.9% poor
15161712.6%0%5.8%
Berrien Springs Public Schools
3,832 students
68.3% poor
1681911850.5%0%0%
Livingston Classical Academy*
210 students
13.8% poor
1016136.3%20.2%7.7%
Beal City Public Schools
684 students
29.4% poor
4041440%0%2.3%
Meridian Public Schools
1,306 students
47.4% poor
8083771.2%0%0%
Clare Public Schools
1,614 students
50.4% poor
9187860%0%1.2%
Garden City Public Schools
3,701 students
60.7% poor
2742863090.3%1.1%3.6%
Four Corners Montessori Academy*
441 students
35.4% poor
2427250%0%8.1%
Richmond Community Schools
1,432 students
33.7% poor
8289860%1.2%0%
Ontonagon Area School District
275 students
52% poor
19181711.3%5.4%18.1%
ICademy Global*
204 students
33.8% poor
1413130%0%0%
Ann Arbor Learning Community*
209 students
77.5% poor
1411100%13.9%0%
Mar Lee School District
303 students
51.5% poor
2120240%0%4.2%
Clio Area School District
2,918 students
53.5% poor
1521521570%0%1.3%
The Greenspire School*
134 students
39.6% poor
6780%0%0%
Glenn Public School District
37 students
51.4% poor
3450%33.6%0%
New Bedford Academy*
105 students
44.8% poor
9960%0%0%
Michigan Connections Academy*
1,722 students
57.3% poor
6872741.4%1.5%2.7%
Cheboygan Area Schools
1,563 students
61.2% poor
9697970%0%1%
Marlette Community Schools
768 students
54.2% poor
4849520%0%0%
Fulton Schools
675 students
53% poor
4948490%0%0%
Allen Park Public Schools
3,829 students
38.2% poor
2022042090.5%0%0%
Laurus Academy*
744 students
73.4% poor
50514711.7%5.9%12.7%
Ithaca Public Schools
1,085 students
44.6% poor
7370790%0%0%
Gladwin Community Schools
1,680 students
57.7% poor
8691870%0%1.1%
Standish-Sterling Community Schools
1,579 students
55.9% poor
7474720%2.7%0%
Brandon School District in the Counties of Oakland and Lapeer
2,380 students
38.3% poor
1571511500%0%0.7%
Essexville-Hampton Public Schools
1,717 students
30.3% poor
8187901.2%1.2%1.1%
Alcona Community Schools
686 students
67.6% poor
3940420%0%9.6%
Menominee Area Public Schools
1,307 students
53.9% poor
8589910%2.4%5.5%
Gibraltar School District
3,678 students
31.2% poor
1911952010.5%0%0%
Lake Shore Public Schools (Macomb)
3,493 students
48% poor
2262152140%0%0.5%
Riverview Community School District
2,873 students
45.3% poor
1381401480%1.5%0.7%
Jefferson Schools (Monroe)
1,593 students
41.2% poor
10097880%0%0%
Windemere Park Charter Academy*
637 students
74.9% poor
4457533.5%4.5%13.1%
Stanton Township Public Schools
172 students
64.5% poor
9990%0%0%
Niles Community Schools
3,654 students
57.9% poor
2162062173.4%0.9%8.7%
Britton Deerfield Schools
533 students
51.4% poor
4437330%0%9.1%
Flex High School of Michigan*
29 students
100% poor
0030%0%0%
Imlay City Community Schools
2,018 students
55.9% poor
1001081130%0%0%
Perry Public Schools
1,092 students
45.6% poor
7464710%0%1.4%
Fruitport Community Schools
2,718 students
55.8% poor
1711671800%0%0%
Holland City School District
3,364 students
64.5% poor
2712632570.8%0.4%0.8%
Pinckney Community Schools
2,602 students
20% poor
1731661670%0.6%1.2%
Fowlerville Community Schools
2,802 students
38.8% poor
1531521660.7%0%0.6%
Au Gres-Sims School District
399 students
62.7% poor
2623260%0%0%
Manton Consolidated Schools
952 students
58.7% poor
6056571.8%0%1.8%
Lakeview Sch. District (Calhoun)
4,075 students
54.9% poor
2282422350%0.4%0.4%
Grand River Academy*
788 students
57.6% poor
5357548.8%3.8%18.4%
Pinconning Area Schools
1,267 students
53.7% poor
7072731.4%1.4%1.4%
Saranac Community Schools
920 students
42.6% poor
5656580%1.8%0%
Onsted Community Schools
1,294 students
37.7% poor
7882770%0%0%
Sodus Township S/D #5
73 students
83.6% poor
8650%0%0%
Mancelona Public Schools
936 students
71.3% poor
5657538.8%3.6%5.7%
Big Rapids Public Schools
2,061 students
51.5% poor
9795980%3.1%1%
Buckley Community Schools
409 students
49.1% poor
27333212.2%3.7%6.3%
Centreville Public Schools
844 students
46.3% poor
4854490%0%2%
Shepherd Public Schools
1,811 students
47.2% poor
1061061090%0%1.8%
Quincy Community Schools
1,215 students
49.9% poor
6567601.5%3.1%1.7%
Bronson Community School District
1,049 students
57.8% poor
5456571.8%1.8%0%
Kingston Community School District
595 students
56.6% poor
3435370%0%5.5%
Eaton Rapids Public Schools
2,296 students
55.3% poor
1421481461.4%0.7%2%
Distinctive College Prep.*
465 students
89.7% poor
016340%0%0%
Bark River-Harris School District
743 students
50.1% poor
3940410%0%0%
Norway-Vulcan Area Schools
686 students
45.9% poor
3536370%0%2.7%
Jackson Preparatory & Early College*
384 students
34.4% poor
1917195.8%0%0%
Detroit Service Learning Academy*
1,350 students
99.5% poor
85746116.2%2.4%76.6%
West Iron County Public Schools
831 students
69.3% poor
5155580%0%0%
Sandusky Community School District
1,017 students
50.6% poor
5861650%0%0%
Paw Paw Public School District
2,155 students
44.6% poor
1261261190.8%0%0%
Tipton Academy*
508 students
69.9% poor
3333380%0%18.7%
Genesee School District
669 students
85.4% poor
3938380%0%2.6%
Hale Area Schools
342 students
74.6% poor
2323234.4%4.4%0%
Constantine Public School District
1,449 students
56.6% poor
7176892.6%0%1.1%
Leelanau Montessori Public School Academy*
64 students
54.7% poor
56717.2%0%14.3%
Unionville-Sebewaing Area S.D.
715 students
42.9% poor
3841460%0%0%
Escanaba Area Public Schools
2,329 students
54.9% poor
1271321360%0%0.7%
Branch Line School*
142 students
43.7% poor
1110140%0%7%
Waterford School District
8,542 students
59.5% poor
6276386620.2%0.6%0%
Alma Public Schools
2,095 students
56.9% poor
1281261350%0.8%0%
Superior Central School District
335 students
59.1% poor
2125280%0%0%
Parchment School District
1,603 students
54.1% poor
9596993.1%0%5%
St. Ignace Area Schools
511 students
53.2% poor
3131299.6%3.2%17.4%
Lamphere Public Schools
2,484 students
50.6% poor
1841851822.2%2.2%1.6%
Swartz Creek Community Schools
3,636 students
53.7% poor
2082122090%0%0.5%
New Paradigm College Prep*
83 students
100% poor
6850%0%0%
Dearborn City School District
20,740 students
75.8% poor
1,3691,5091,5483.6%4.5%6.7%
Chippewa Hills School District
1,959 students
60.3% poor
1051041061%0%0.9%
Ellsworth Community School
256 students
54.3% poor
19171923.1%15.8%10.6%
Eagle's Nest Academy*
187 students
92.5% poor
161890%6.3%66.7%
Crestwood School District
3,966 students
76.4% poor
2172242410%0%0.4%
Benton Harbor Charter School Academy*
520 students
89.4% poor
28292610.3%0%62.3%
Caro Community Schools
1,677 students
58.4% poor
8893931.1%0%0%
Oakland International Academy*
852 students
99.2% poor
6662528.1%1.5%13.5%
New Haven Community Schools
1,260 students
52.1% poor
8074742.7%1.2%1.4%
Montague Area Public Schools
1,514 students
49.7% poor
9089951.1%1.1%3.2%
Metro Charter Academy*
726 students
74.8% poor
5455511.8%3.7%11.7%
Lawrence Public Schools
570 students
64.6% poor
33363611.1%0%5.6%
Bay City School District
7,504 students
52.5% poor
4354354420.5%0.2%0.7%
South Arbor Charter Academy*
796 students
22.5% poor
4353531.9%0%3.7%
Ionia Township S/D #2
11 students
45.5% poor
1110%0%0%
Huron School District
2,581 students
33.9% poor
1571531661.3%0%0%
Creative Montessori Academy*
765 students
59.2% poor
3836402.8%0%2.5%
Warren Consolidated Schools
13,767 students
64.7% poor
8158107841.6%0.5%0.5%
Potterville Public Schools
865 students
44.3% poor
6157530%0%0%
Manchester Community Schools
926 students
22.5% poor
5759580%0%0%
Joy Preparatory Academy*
356 students
99.7% poor
251526108.3%43.2%62.3%
Deckerville Community School District
614 students
65% poor
4042520%0%0%
Onaway Area Community School District
604 students
56.8% poor
3534350%0%8.6%
Rogers City Area Schools
528 students
56.4% poor
3532340%0%0%
Lakeview Community Schools (Montcalm)
1,123 students
54.9% poor
7274722.7%0%0%
Alpena Public Schools
3,753 students
58% poor
2011952003.6%1%1.5%
Wyandotte, School District of the City of
4,792 students
57.9% poor
3213203380%0.3%0.6%
Decatur Public Schools
740 students
67% poor
4949470%0%0%
Benzie County Central Schools
1,414 students
59.5% poor
8488820%0%4.9%
Augusta Academy*
32 students
59.4% poor
4350%0%0%
Corunna Public Schools
1,811 students
53.8% poor
10698990%0.9%2%
Fremont Public School District
2,139 students
52.9% poor
1191151190.9%0%0.8%
Allegan Public Schools
2,423 students
56.5% poor
1501441510%0%0%
Pine River Area Schools
1,070 students
56.7% poor
6262600%0%0%
Airport Community Schools
2,633 students
52.9% poor
1481501490%0.7%0%
Mason County Eastern Schools
437 students
76.7% poor
3228267.2%3.2%3.8%
Warren Woods Public Schools
3,244 students
58.3% poor
2072152221.9%0.5%1.3%
Comstock Park Public Schools
1,890 students
57.5% poor
1231141110.9%0%0%
Breckenridge Community Schools
668 students
54.6% poor
4343422.3%2.3%7.1%
Oakridge Public Schools
2,042 students
63.6% poor
1231211330%0%2.3%
Grant Public School District
1,799 students
57.2% poor
9594945.3%0%3.2%
Akron-Fairgrove Schools
314 students
75.2% poor
2118205.7%0%5%
Millington Community Schools
1,197 students
57.6% poor
6570762.9%1.5%0%
Webberville Community Schools
524 students
54.4% poor
3638342.7%2.8%3%
Camden-Frontier School
504 students
58.7% poor
3231323.2%0%6.3%
Ewen-Trout Creek Consolidated School District
191 students
55.5% poor
16171612%12.2%12.4%
Woodland School*
214 students
15.9% poor
1112120%0%0%
L'Anse Area Schools
605 students
63.1% poor
4744460%0%4.4%
Pellston Public Schools
495 students
69.9% poor
3230360%0%8.4%
Dollar Bay-Tamarack City Area K-12 School
337 students
51.9% poor
2120225.1%9.4%18.5%
St. Louis Public Schools
1,043 students
68.1% poor
6564690%0%0%
Whitmore Lake Public School District
749 students
42.1% poor
6363550%0%0%
Harper Creek Community Schools
2,828 students
41% poor
1621661670.6%1.9%2.4%
Munising Public Schools
657 students
54.5% poor
3841400%0%0%
Reese Public Schools
805 students
51.1% poor
4645440%0%4.6%
Coldwater Community Schools
2,799 students
59.6% poor
1401471530.7%0%0%
Tahquamenon Area Schools
599 students
59.9% poor
38413912.3%13.2%12.7%
Brimley Area Schools
536 students
59.1% poor
34354014.4%5.9%5%
Ironwood Area Schools of Gogebic County
765 students
56.9% poor
5254543.7%3.9%9.3%
Vista Charter Academy*
702 students
93.7% poor
5350550%0%5.5%
Excelsior Township S/D #1
50 students
66% poor
4330%0%0%
Bear Lake Schools
284 students
64.4% poor
1514147.2%6.8%0%
Farwell Area Schools
1,158 students
61.2% poor
7164650%0%3.1%
Capac Community Schools
889 students
51.9% poor
5951680%0%0%
Manistee Area Public Schools
1,399 students
54% poor
8073790%0%0%
Canton Charter Academy*
749 students
18.8% poor
3941422.4%0%9.6%
Morenci Area Schools
650 students
62.5% poor
4547464.3%0%4.3%
Northwest Community Schools
3,558 students
62.3% poor
1831912000.5%0.5%2.5%
Holton Public Schools
837 students
70.6% poor
4848492.1%4.1%8.2%
Tri County Area Schools
1,906 students
58.6% poor
1101101100%0%0%
Cross Creek Charter Academy*
781 students
32.5% poor
4847430%2.1%2.3%
Union City Community Schools
1,040 students
56.9% poor
6863610%0%1.6%
Ravenna Public Schools
1,048 students
49.3% poor
6565650%0%0%
South Haven Public Schools
1,987 students
61.3% poor
1391211150.8%0%0.9%
DeTour Area Schools
96 students
53.1% poor
121090%0%0%
Hanley International Academy*
647 students
94.6% poor
4040420%0%7.2%
Huron Academy*
620 students
61% poor
3942459.6%2.6%6.7%
Great Oaks Academy*
734 students
93.2% poor
4650476%2.2%12.8%
Suttons Bay Public Schools
612 students
57.2% poor
30293717.4%6.8%5.3%
Adams Township School District
480 students
51.5% poor
2728290%3.7%0%
Godwin Heights Public Schools
2,076 students
89.4% poor
1471431330%0.7%0%
Waverly Community Schools
3,009 students
62.3% poor
1701891921.1%1.2%0%
AuTrain-Onota Public Schools
38 students
63.2% poor
5550%20.8%0%
Ferndale Public Schools
3,099 students
60.7% poor
1841781800.6%0%0.6%
East Jordan Public Schools
861 students
53.3% poor
4951520%0%0%
Clarenceville School District
1,858 students
63.7% poor
1131141241.8%0%0%
Maple Valley Schools
987 students
53.5% poor
6363640%0%0%
Southgate Community School District
3,526 students
51.7% poor
2562582461.9%2.7%2%
Kearsley Community School District
2,898 students
70.2% poor
1611661700%0%0%
University Preparatory Science and Math (PSAD)*
1,479 students
69.2% poor
1011031046.8%1%9.6%
Michigan Center School District
1,400 students
50.6% poor
8480791.3%0%1.3%
Oscoda Area Schools
1,146 students
70% poor
7173810%0%1.2%
Newaygo Public School District
1,562 students
65.9% poor
8087800%0%0%
North Star Academy*
267 students
58.4% poor
2525230%0%8.9%
Colon Community School District
550 students
54.7% poor
3841402.5%0%5.1%
Vassar Public Schools
1,088 students
71.2% poor
6360623.3%1.6%1.6%
Delton Kellogg Schools
1,246 students
54% poor
6663650%0%0%
Adrian Public Schools
2,837 students
63.6% poor
1791751761.1%0%0.6%
Rudyard Area Schools
614 students
71.5% poor
4043410%4.9%2.4%
Kalamazoo Public Schools
12,777 students
71.2% poor
8088248160.8%0.7%1%
Mesick Consolidated Schools
654 students
70.5% poor
3836390%0%0%
Marcellus Community Schools
705 students
64.8% poor
3939422.5%0%0%
Morrice Area Schools
511 students
48.7% poor
3932366.3%0%0%
Concord Community Schools
667 students
58.8% poor
4245420%0%0%
The James and Grace Lee Boggs School*
137 students
75.2% poor
4670%0%61.5%
Houghton Lake Community Schools
1,249 students
76.8% poor
971081030.9%0%1.9%
Engadine Consolidated Schools
359 students
69.9% poor
19252220%10.4%9%
Landmark Academy*
775 students
67.7% poor
56576017.6%9%11.6%
Boyne Falls Public School District
196 students
65.3% poor
1616170%0%0%
Reach Charter Academy*
652 students
91.3% poor
5958491.7%0%6.1%
Sturgis Public Schools
3,255 students
60.2% poor
1811831862.7%1.1%0%
Mendon Community School District
510 students
52.5% poor
3637340%2.8%5.8%
Vestaburg Community Schools
717 students
57.2% poor
4146480%0%2.1%
Jonesville Community Schools
1,446 students
52.6% poor
8484830%0%4.8%
Pennfield Schools
2,083 students
50.1% poor
1321261290%0%0%
Easton Township S/D #6
24 students
29.2% poor
2240%0%0%
Mio-AuSable Schools
533 students
73.4% poor
3431346.4%2.9%5.9%
Cassopolis Public Schools
957 students
60.7% poor
5453507.6%11.1%6.1%
Addison Community Schools
830 students
55.8% poor
4547502.1%2.2%2%
Coleman Community Schools
675 students
63.6% poor
4239432.6%0%0%
North Huron School District
367 students
53.1% poor
3128250%0%0%
White Pigeon Community Schools
755 students
58.4% poor
4650520%0%1.9%
Galesburg-Augusta Community Schools
1,036 students
56.8% poor
6462770%3.1%0%
Reed City Area Public Schools
1,494 students
53.2% poor
9695880%1%0%
Flat Rock Community Schools
2,044 students
43.4% poor
1011061140%0%0%
Eagle Crest Charter Academy*
723 students
50.5% poor
5148480%2%0%
Northridge Academy*
198 students
100% poor
2726177.8%0%6%
Wyoming Public Schools
4,152 students
80.6% poor
2472492460%0.8%0.4%
Hart Public School District
1,353 students
71.7% poor
8286830%0%1.2%
Carsonville-Port Sanilac School District
348 students
61.5% poor
2324234.2%0%0%
Forest Area Community Schools
518 students
73.9% poor
3837322.7%5.2%0%
Harrison Community Schools
1,418 students
78.1% poor
7678790%1.3%2.5%
Athens Area Schools
552 students
46% poor
3740400%0%0%
Detroit Public Safety Academy*
286 students
95.1% poor
12102078.4%41%60%
Kalkaska Public Schools
1,472 students
65.1% poor
100981031%1%2.9%
Springport Public Schools
984 students
61.7% poor
6059610%0%0%
Belding Area School District
1,777 students
56.7% poor
102100980%0%0%
Monroe Public Schools
5,232 students
60.7% poor
3022913021.7%0.7%1.3%
Baraga Area Schools
348 students
56% poor
3128337.2%0%3.1%
Morley Stanwood Community Schools
1,163 students
68.5% poor
6272661.4%0%0%
Peck Community School District
349 students
60.5% poor
1920170%0%11.5%
Beaverton Rural Schools
991 students
53.3% poor
6564630%0%0%
Northport Public School District
141 students
65.2% poor
1922244.6%16%8.5%
Marshall Academy*
272 students
57.7% poor
2225194.1%18.5%10.7%
Ishpeming Public School District No. 1
760 students
54.9% poor
4950540%0%1.9%
Madison District Public Schools
1,509 students
69.6% poor
9593860%0%0%
Brandywine Community Schools
1,334 students
63% poor
7780830%1.3%0%
Watervliet School District
1,502 students
63.9% poor
8683830%0%0%
Noor International Academy*
154 students
66.2% poor
1517115.8%0%18.2%
Mayville Community School District
596 students
73.5% poor
3632323.2%2.8%0%
Montabella Community Schools
765 students
59.7% poor
6460540%1.6%0%
Coloma Community Schools
1,341 students
73.9% poor
8893880%0%3.4%
South Lake Schools
1,619 students
66.8% poor
1081111150.9%1.8%2.6%
Gwinn Area Community Schools
1,071 students
69% poor
7572721.4%2.7%0%
Kaleva Norman Dickson School District
516 students
75.8% poor
2728313.5%7.3%3.2%
Carson City-Crystal Area Schools
941 students
57.9% poor
5553540%0%1.9%
Wakefield-Marenisco School District
286 students
55.2% poor
2021210%5.1%4.7%
Warrendale Charter Academy*
753 students
98.3% poor
5155505.5%5.9%10.1%
Detroit Enterprise Academy*
738 students
96.1% poor
4346556.6%6.9%10.9%
LakeVille Community School District
1,149 students
58.2% poor
7171791.4%0%0%
Cornerstone Jefferson-Douglass Academy*
635 students
87.2% poor
018160%0%0%
Madison Academy*
414 students
86% poor
7172776.9%2.8%3.9%
Mason County Central Schools
1,327 students
61.8% poor
6166670%1.6%0%
Dryden Community Schools
454 students
41% poor
3232290%0%0%
Hudson Area Schools
1,133 students
62.3% poor
5658591.7%3.6%0%
Owosso Public Schools
3,114 students
60.5% poor
1701791720%0.6%0.6%
Southfield Public School District
5,768 students
56.4% poor
4354304440.5%0%0%
Michigan Virtual Charter Academy*
2,919 students
79.1% poor
1581491730.7%0%0%
Carrollton Public Schools
1,835 students
78.6% poor
1501551636.5%6.7%6.8%
Comstock Public Schools
1,780 students
69% poor
1221221360.8%0%0%
Pickford Public Schools
409 students
42.3% poor
3024260%0%0%
Port Huron Area School District
8,194 students
55.7% poor
5365305330.6%0.2%0.2%
Wolverine Community School District
272 students
80.5% poor
18161812.5%0%0%
Merrill Community Schools
581 students
57% poor
3740360%0%2.8%
George Crockett Academy*
411 students
100% poor
26212437.9%11.6%54.4%
Climax-Scotts Community Schools
500 students
53.2% poor
3537360%0%0%
Carman-Ainsworth Community Schools
4,708 students
81.7% poor
2512592810.4%0.4%0.7%
Carney-Nadeau Public Schools
287 students
64.1% poor
22232013.1%8.9%14.8%
Ojibwe Charter School*
100 students
82% poor
14151319.5%14.3%52.2%
Hillsdale Community Schools
1,353 students
58.9% poor
7986810%0%1.2%
Central Montcalm Public Schools
1,513 students
67.3% poor
10199981%0%1%
Lake City Area School District
1,166 students
65.7% poor
6967691.5%0%2.9%
Lincoln Consolidated School District
3,691 students
46.7% poor
2212342410%0.9%0%
Whittemore-Prescott Area Schools
747 students
85.7% poor
4948482.1%6.1%2.1%
Pembroke Academy*
244 students
93% poor
00240%0%0%
Atlanta Community Schools
239 students
65.7% poor
1615160%0%0%
Forest Academy*
167 students
73.7% poor
2117150%0%0%
David Ellis Academy West*
743 students
69.2% poor
5048458.4%2%15.5%
AGBU Alex-Marie Manoogian School*
399 students
55.4% poor
2828287.2%7.2%7.2%
Saginaw Learn to Earn Academy*
140 students
98.6% poor
86850%13.3%50%
Saginaw, School District of the City of
5,452 students
80.5% poor
3743753741.6%0%5.1%
Bois Blanc Pines School District
2 students
50% poor
1110%0%0%
Holly Academy*
645 students
20.5% poor
5249500%0%0%
Moran Township School District
86 students
60.5% poor
5770%0%0%
Voyageur Academy*
1,149 students
95.7% poor
5367597.4%22.7%49.2%
Island City Academy*
204 students
27.9% poor
1413148%0%14%
American Montessori Academy*
486 students
65.4% poor
32313013.1%9.3%6.8%
Tekonsha Community Schools
243 students
61.3% poor
1615170%0%0%
Academy for Business and Technology*
519 students
88.8% poor
46393746.5%8.7%48.5%
White Pine Academy*
75 students
50.7% poor
71170%0%14.3%
Uplift Michigan Academy*
123 students
48.8% poor
00560%0%0%
Highland Park Public School Academy System*
372 students
93.8% poor
26162798.2%11.5%48%
Roseville Community Schools
4,631 students
61.7% poor
2892862770%0%0.4%
Fennville Public Schools
1,305 students
73.1% poor
8481850%0%0%
Center Line Public Schools
2,553 students
74.3% poor
1511691740%0%0%
Van Buren Public Schools
4,603 students
57.6% poor
2822922920%0%0.7%
Baldwin Community Schools
515 students
95.3% poor
4140465%2.4%4.4%
Melvindale-North Allen Park Schools
3,135 students
86.7% poor
1511481771.4%2.7%0.6%
Fitzgerald Public Schools
2,546 students
69% poor
1591761920.6%1.3%1%
Republic-Michigamme Schools
110 students
60.9% poor
1413120%0%0%
Caniff Liberty Academy*
481 students
99% poor
3030293.3%0%10.3%
Walton Charter Academy*
815 students
93.6% poor
5254511.9%1.9%3.9%
Three Lakes Academy*
116 students
72.4% poor
12121326%24.5%47.8%
Shelby Public Schools
1,265 students
71.7% poor
7773781.4%1.3%3.8%
Universal Learning Academy*
615 students
82.6% poor
47424051.8%40.1%47.2%
Mildred C. Wells Preparatory Academy*
195 students
100% poor
1213130%8.3%45.8%
Burt Township School District
33 students
72.7% poor
76616.8%0%15.7%
Cole Academy*
252 students
52.8% poor
1110150%0%0%
Evart Public Schools
898 students
71.9% poor
4849514.1%4.2%2%
Ashley Community Schools
259 students
71.4% poor
2320230%0%8.7%
Covert Public Schools
366 students
99.2% poor
1722220%0%0%
Prevail Academy*
589 students
89.1% poor
4449450%0%2.2%
South Redford School District
3,238 students
67.2% poor
17917818923%18.5%13.3%
Walden Green Montessori*
245 students
38.8% poor
1414160%0%12.6%
Dowagiac Union School District
2,188 students
74.5% poor
1311341370%0%0.7%
Vandercook Lake Public Schools
958 students
77.1% poor
7173630%0%0%
Dearborn Heights School District #7
2,507 students
76.7% poor
1391531500.7%0%0.7%
Hillman Community Schools
411 students
67.4% poor
30272918.7%0%10.5%
Hagar Township S/D #6
81 students
81.5% poor
6560%0%0%
Bloomingdale Public School District
1,164 students
81% poor
7269700%0%1.4%
Endeavor Charter Academy*
679 students
84.2% poor
3947452.1%0%6.7%
Rapid River Public Schools
328 students
46.3% poor
1919200%0%0%
Homer Community School District
1,025 students
54.5% poor
6564610%0%1.6%
East Shore Leadership Academy*
205 students
94.1% poor
1519170%0%0%
White Cloud Public Schools
957 students
75.5% poor
5353521.9%0%0%
Arbor Academy*
214 students
86.4% poor
2220130%0%0%
Hartford Public Schools
1,365 students
84.5% poor
7575831.3%1.3%1.2%
University Preparatory Academy (PSAD)*
1,940 students
82.8% poor
1441531596.5%4.2%11.9%
Bellevue Community Schools
600 students
62.5% poor
3637460%0%2.2%
Charlton Heston Academy*
685 students
78.5% poor
43384523.6%11.6%44.4%
Burr Oak Community School District
287 students
73.9% poor
19201810.1%5.1%5.5%
Central Lake Public Schools
291 students
71.1% poor
24201915.3%8.5%0%
Inland Lakes Schools
689 students
59.1% poor
4342410%0%0%
Reading Community Schools
733 students
55.7% poor
4640420%0%0%
Macomb Montessori Academy*
201 students
86.6% poor
1112150%9.1%39.7%
Gateway To Success Academy*
122 students
82.8% poor
156716.7%0%13.5%
Grand Rapids Public Schools
16,006 students
73.7% poor
1,2141,2131,1472.8%2.5%2.7%
Michigan Online School*
431 students
69.1% poor
00280%0%0%
Lansing Charter Academy*
546 students
89.9% poor
6159525.1%3.3%17.4%
Clintondale Community Schools
2,725 students
79.5% poor
1361441250.7%2.2%2.4%
Romulus Community Schools
2,577 students
75.7% poor
1801861810%1.7%2.2%
Orchard View Schools
2,268 students
75.5% poor
1561621440%0%0%
Bendle Public Schools
1,185 students
96.8% poor
6871811.4%0%0%
GEE Edmonson Academy*
232 students
100% poor
18171312.1%17.1%38.5%
River City Scholars Charter Academy*
477 students
92.9% poor
5048410%2%4.8%
Michigan Great Lakes Virtual Academy*
2,857 students
77.4% poor
1161351661.5%0%0%
American International Academy*
709 students
90.4% poor
2522168.9%0%38%
Paramount Charter Academy*
451 students
92.7% poor
3442434.7%11.8%13.9%
West MI Academy of Environmental Science*
822 students
60.6% poor
5758500%0%0%
Lincoln Park, School District of the City of
4,804 students
72.7% poor
3123333460%0%0.6%
Hesperia Community Schools
899 students
72.6% poor
5756583.6%0%1.7%
Bentley Community School District
836 students
67.9% poor
4646602.2%0%1.7%
Charyl Stockwell Academy*
1,118 students
16.2% poor
6466653%1.6%6.2%
University Yes Academy*
554 students
79.4% poor
2231229.8%0%0%
Bridge Academy*
773 students
99.5% poor
42454311.1%4.8%37.2%
Jackson Public Schools
4,770 students
71% poor
3112922671%1%1.9%
Detroit Community Schools*
672 students
99.9% poor
52433623.1%11.5%36.3%
Rutherford Winans Academy*
179 students
93.3% poor
1111919%9.1%0%
Renaissance Public School Academy*
431 students
58.5% poor
2726297.8%0%3.4%
Taylor School District
6,217 students
62.3% poor
4364344321.4%2.1%2.5%
Dr. Joseph F. Pollack Academic Center of Excellence*
835 students
82.2% poor
4551513.9%4.4%5.9%
Marion Public Schools
421 students
66.3% poor
3230263.4%0%3.9%
International Academy of Saginaw*
194 students
74.7% poor
22151520%23.3%34.5%
Madison-Carver Academy*
686 students
90.7% poor
3237310%3.1%0%
Kensington Woods Schools*
128 students
25.8% poor
1716136.2%6%0%
Washington-Parks Academy*
1,624 students
90.2% poor
8483650%0%0%
Trillium Academy*
594 students
71.2% poor
5450444%1.8%13.6%
The New Standard Academy*
581 students
96% poor
4137350%2.5%2.9%
Innocademy Allegan Campus*
113 students
77.9% poor
981112.2%0%0%
Wayne-Westland Community School District
10,898 students
53.2% poor
7987937780.1%0.3%0%
North Adams-Jerome Public Schools
283 students
76.3% poor
1920190%0%0%
Alanson Public Schools
219 students
63.9% poor
1816186.3%5.6%5.6%
Will Carleton Charter School Academy*
251 students
26.7% poor
23231826%4.3%34.1%
Watersmeet Township School District
134 students
78.4% poor
1718185.6%5.9%5.7%
Pittsford Area Schools
453 students
60.5% poor
2928280%0%3.6%
Ypsilanti Community Schools
3,840 students
65.3% poor
3333302980.9%0%1.3%
Bangor Public Schools (Van Buren)
1,118 students
76.1% poor
7176770%0%2.6%
Escuela Avancemos*
301 students
98.3% poor
1717205.9%0%15.4%
Star International Academy*
1,562 students
93.5% poor
98908629.8%14.3%33.9%
Godfrey-Lee Public Schools
1,840 students
95.4% poor
1271281180.8%0%0.8%
Waterford Montessori Academy*
309 students
31.1% poor
13141936.3%0%32.3%
Faxon Language Immersion Academy*
67 students
43.3% poor
115588.9%9.1%0%
Quest Charter Academy*
769 students
75.4% poor
5853551.9%1.7%12.7%
Francis Reh PSA*
455 students
97.8% poor
28222927.8%0%31.1%
Atherton Community Schools
852 students
81.9% poor
4550520%4.5%0%
Caseville Public Schools
268 students
70.1% poor
22202110.1%4.6%0%
Owendale-Gagetown Area School District
148 students
65.5% poor
1110100%0%0%
Harper Woods, The School District of the City of
2,349 students
76.1% poor
981091330.9%0%5.3%
Kelloggsville Public Schools
2,418 students
87.9% poor
1431481670%0%0%
Advanced Technology Academy*
1,296 students
92.7% poor
10491902.2%2.9%5.6%
Global Heights Academy*
261 students
100% poor
2024190%0%5.3%
Eau Claire Public Schools
754 students
90.6% poor
6165501.5%0%0%
Lansing Public School District
10,652 students
71.5% poor
7977747622.7%2.1%4.6%
Battle Creek Montessori Academy*
180 students
72.2% poor
98912.5%11.1%10.7%
Evergreen Academy*
54 students
68.5% poor
101080%0%0%
Hamtramck, School District of the City of
3,300 students
94.4% poor
1861962211%0%0.5%
Southwest Detroit Community School*
386 students
93.8% poor
23313112.9%13%6.5%
Walkerville Public Schools
263 students
82.9% poor
2221220%0%4.5%
Great Lakes Cyber Academy*
1,061 students
58.2% poor
3037435.4%3.3%0%
Sarah J. Webber Media Arts Academy*
219 students
88.6% poor
10970%0%30.8%
Hope of Detroit Academy*
957 students
95.8% poor
49586312.1%6.1%30.4%
Henry Ford Academy: School for Creative Studies (PSAD)*
1,286 students
82.3% poor
9087923.4%1.1%8.7%
Highpoint Virtual Academy of Michigan*
837 students
74.7% poor
924344.1%0%0%
Van Dyke Public Schools
2,355 students
88.3% poor
1721731601.7%0%0.6%
Summit Academy North*
1,842 students
66.3% poor
1041011014%2.9%4%
Mt. Morris Consolidated Schools
1,827 students
82.7% poor
1331271390%0%0.7%
St. Clair County Intervention Academy*
55 students
100% poor
6650%0%0%
Global Tech Academy*
181 students
94.5% poor
1412130%7.4%0%
East Jackson Community Schools
940 students
64.7% poor
5659573.4%1.8%3.5%
Nah Tah Wahsh Public School Academy*
186 students
88.2% poor
2423268.7%4.2%11.5%
Hillsdale Preparatory School*
132 students
50% poor
1313107.7%0%30%
Dove Academy of Detroit*
469 students
88.1% poor
3033353.1%3.4%16.9%
Muskegon, Public Schools of the City of
3,589 students
87.6% poor
2632732723.3%4.2%4.4%
WAY Michigan*
195 students
80% poor
59100%0%0%
The Woodley Leadership Academy*
182 students
90.7% poor
00100%0%0%
LifeTech Academy*
161 students
51.6% poor
5770%0%28.8%
Momentum Academy*
216 students
89.4% poor
1311229.5%8%4.5%
Eastpointe Community Schools
2,691 students
79% poor
2352172083.7%0%7.2%
Hazel Park, School District of the City of
3,271 students
66.4% poor
2202542210%0%0.5%
New Branches Charter Academy*
350 students
82.6% poor
2322234.5%0%0%
George Washington Carver Academy*
537 students
99.6% poor
32253316%0%27.5%
Chandler Park Academy*
2,199 students
92.4% poor
12411811810.2%4%16.9%
Westwood Heights Schools
1,510 students
92.2% poor
7383810%0%3.7%
Litchfield Community Schools
256 students
71.1% poor
1618160%6.3%0%
Flat River Academy*
146 students
78.8% poor
14111826.4%7.1%27.4%
West Village Academy*
353 students
70.8% poor
27283210.7%11.1%18.8%
Redford Union Schools, District No. 1
2,392 students
76.3% poor
1842122092.4%1.6%3.4%
Bridgeport-Spaulding Community School District
1,565 students
84.2% poor
9189882.2%2.2%1.1%
Whitefish Township Schools
47 students
63.8% poor
8980%0%0%
Da Vinci Institute*
446 students
74.7% poor
3229260%3.2%3.8%
Detroit Achievement Academy*
286 students
73.4% poor
917210%0%0%
GEE White Academy*
374 students
99.7% poor
31302613.5%6.6%26.7%
Battle Creek Public Schools
3,911 students
83.7% poor
3113073132%1%7%
Mount Clemens Community School District
1,041 students
79.7% poor
7371740%0%0%
Countryside Academy*
756 students
88% poor
4540462.5%2.2%13.2%
Crescent Academy*
962 students
88.9% poor
72645717.2%16.7%26.2%
Woodland Park Academy*
386 students
80.6% poor
3233340%3.1%6%
Timberland Academy*
729 students
96.7% poor
5057578.7%0%1.8%
Hope Academy*
534 students
87.6% poor
2830310%0%12.9%
Pontiac City School District
4,180 students
79.6% poor
2862682590.4%0.4%0%
David Ellis Academy*
304 students
92.8% poor
2723224.3%3.7%9.2%
Oak Park, School District of the City of
4,368 students
81.4% poor
2632792861.1%0%2.1%
Legacy Charter Academy*
747 students
97.9% poor
5652541.9%3.6%26.1%
River Rouge, School District of the City of
2,279 students
79.4% poor
9910111411.8%6.1%9.6%
Weston Preparatory Academy*
297 students
90.6% poor
20161618.8%4.9%25%
MacDowell Preparatory Academy*
366 students
98.6% poor
16202314.7%24.9%13.2%
Richfield Public School Academy*
670 students
95.7% poor
5753481.9%1.8%0%
Three Oaks Public School Academy*
350 students
100% poor
2427240%4.1%24.5%
Detroit Academy of Arts and Sciences*
1,045 students
93.3% poor
3737420%10.8%0%
Beecher Community School District
755 students
93% poor
5352491.9%1.9%8.2%
Vanderbilt Area Schools
80 students
81.3% poor
12101410.4%17.2%0%
Genesee STEM Academy*
308 students
94.5% poor
16191621.1%0%0%
Global Preparatory Academy*
107 students
84.1% poor
1011100%0%0%
Summit Academy*
261 students
73.2% poor
2527203.6%0%0%
Detroit Premier Academy*
770 students
95.7% poor
59625012.9%3.4%23.9%
Martin Luther King, Jr. Education Center Academy*
397 students
85.6% poor
24222113.6%16.7%23.8%
Commonwealth Community Development Academy*
193 students
91.2% poor
97100%0%0%
Pontiac Academy for Excellence*
774 students
75.3% poor
7774555.4%6.5%5.5%
Marvin L. Winans Academy of Performing Arts*
520 students
93.5% poor
2933226%6.9%9.2%
Ecorse Public Schools
1,055 students
81.7% poor
6859710%0%4.2%
Detroit Public Schools Community District
50,176 students
85.9% poor
3,0223,4393,5071.6%0.6%2.6%
Cesar Chavez Academy*
2,291 students
97.5% poor
14915015712.6%8%23.5%
Saginaw Preparatory Academy*
308 students
97.1% poor
27192315.7%0%8.6%
Pansophia Academy*
419 students
81.6% poor
2628270%3.8%7.3%
Bay City Academy*
365 students
76.2% poor
34302623.4%14.7%23.1%
Frontier International Academy*
640 students
98.9% poor
2729356.8%3.8%23%
Hamilton Academy*
207 students
89.9% poor
2022170%5.1%0%
Bradford Academy*
1,416 students
83.2% poor
991051045.7%4%5.8%
Plymouth Educational Center Charter School*
507 students
84.2% poor
33322115.9%9.1%9.5%
Arts and Technology Academy of Pontiac*
843 students
76.6% poor
35362219.4%20%22.7%
Burton Glen Charter Academy*
599 students
97.2% poor
5250412%0%9.6%
Flextech High School Shepherd*
35 students
60% poor
0040%0%0%
Conner Creek Academy East*
932 students
92.8% poor
5656559%3.5%14.4%
Westwood Community School District
1,661 students
84.9% poor
1241191150%0%0%
Michigan International Prep School*
449 students
67% poor
0390%0%0%
W-A-Y Academy*
352 students
93.2% poor
2617140%0%0%
WAY Academy - Flint*
132 students
92.4% poor
171170%0%0%
Great Lakes Academy*
151 students
91.4% poor
13141114.3%7.7%9.5%
State Street Academy*
120 students
82.5% poor
171497.1%0%22.2%
Hope Academy of West Michigan*
371 students
92.5% poor
2634343%0%5.8%
Michigan Mathematics and Science Academy*
817 students
99.8% poor
40515819.6%10%22.2%
Mid-Michigan Leadership Academy*
238 students
98.7% poor
29262111.5%10.3%14.3%
Alba Public Schools
123 students
81.3% poor
1411120%0%0%
Detroit Merit Charter Academy*
737 students
92.3% poor
5157558.8%3.9%21.9%
Clara B. Ford Academy (SDA)*
131 students
99.2% poor
15151713.7%0%6%
William C. Abney Academy*
352 students
97.2% poor
4132340%2.4%0%
Flint, School District of the City of
4,245 students
90.4% poor
3553012750%0%8%
Insight School of Michigan*
769 students
74% poor
4138410%0%4.9%
Academy of Warren*
678 students
95.7% poor
46354020%15.2%17.5%
Lighthouse Academy*
353 students
95.2% poor
2939430%20.8%16.3%
Oakside Scholars Charter Academy*
739 students
92.8% poor
5356503.6%0%21.8%
Macomb Academy*
74 students
27% poor
9850%0%0%
Grand Blanc Academy*
384 students
88% poor
3231286.4%3.1%21.4%
Regent Park Scholars Charter Academy*
749 students
98.1% poor
5655571.8%3.6%21%
Presque Isle Academy*
18 students
100% poor
2210%0%0%
Old Mission Peninsula School*
134 students
19.4% poor
00140%0%0%
Elm River Township School District
4 students
100% poor
1110%0%0%
Kalamazoo Covenant Academy*
184 students
99.5% poor
01070%0%0%
Muskegon Covenant Academy*
235 students
99.1% poor
8770%0%0%
Capstone Academy Charter School (SDA)*
185 students
98.9% poor
8860%0%15.5%
New Paradigm Glazer-Loving Academy*
341 students
99.4% poor
1819140%0%20.8%
Covenant House Academy Detroit*
501 students
96.2% poor
3125250%0%12%
Alternative Educational Academy of Ogemaw County*
118 students
92.4% poor
4440%0%0%
Covenant House Academy Grand Rapids*
306 students
90.8% poor
1315206.7%7.7%0%
Casman Alternative Academy*
75 students
90.7% poor
55820%19.8%12.2%
El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy*
260 students
100% poor
12141021.4%0%0%
Cornerstone Health and Technology School*
556 students
88.8% poor
2835280%0%3.6%
Life Skills Center of Pontiac*
122 students
87.7% poor
6630%18.2%0%
Alternative Educational Academy of Iosco County*
156 students
84.6% poor
4770%0%0%
WSC Academy*
62 students
83.9% poor
45420.8%0%0%
Battle Creek Area Learning Center*
167 students
83.8% poor
89110%0%0%
Church School District
22 students
81.8% poor
1210%0%0%
Blended Learning Academies Credit Recovery High School*
100 students
80% poor
4450%0%0%
Academic and Career Education Academy*
108 students
78.7% poor
6670%0%15.4%
Big Jackson School District
25 students
76% poor
1220%0%0%
Berlin Township S/D #3
8 students
75% poor
1110%0%0%
Windover High School*
184 students
73.9% poor
4750%0%0%
Bay-Arenac Community High School*
172 students
72.7% poor
7680%0%12.5%
Success Virtual Learning Centers of Michigan*
1,237 students
72.4% poor
013210%0%0%
Wells Township School District
10 students
70% poor
2340%0%0%
Arvon Township School District
10 students
70% poor
2220%0%0%
Youth Advancement Academy*
19 students
68.4% poor
5420%0%0%
Jalen Rose Leadership Academy*
413 students
90.3% poor
23242620.4%12.8%15.4%
Taylor Preparatory High School*
433 students
64.9% poor
2326297.7%0%3.5%
Virtual Learning Academy of St. Clair County*
132 students
63.6% poor
9970%0%0%
Relevant Academy of Eaton County*
69 students
62.3% poor
5560%0%0%
Grand River Preparatory High School*
625 students
60.2% poor
3942440%0%0%
Wellspring Preparatory High School*
430 students
59.8% poor
2933400%0%0%
Arts Academy in the Woods*
352 students
56.5% poor
2328290%0%3.5%
Henry Ford Academy*
515 students
54.2% poor
2828320%0%3.2%
Lake Superior Academy*
66 students
51.5% poor
1220%0%0%
NexTech High School*
133 students
66.2% poor
9171635.9%0%6.3%
Arbor Preparatory High School*
313 students
45.4% poor
2731276.6%0%0%
Oneida Township S/D #3
24 students
37.5% poor
2220%0%0%
NexTech High School of Lansing*
169 students
46.7% poor
12111027.9%8.3%9.9%
FlexTech High School*
238 students
35.3% poor
17181711.3%5.9%0%
Sigel Township S/D #3F
20 students
30% poor
2220%0%0%
Canton Preparatory High School*
402 students
29.4% poor
3131330%0%0%
Washtenaw Technical Middle College*
754 students
27.5% poor
2020230%0%0%
West Michigan Aviation Academy*
611 students
26.5% poor
3742392.4%5.4%17.8%
FlexTech High School - Novi*
186 students
31.2% poor
7790%0%0%
Mackinac Island Public Schools
67 students
14.9% poor
1010100%0%0%
Grant Township S/D #2
4 students
0% poor
1110%0%0%
Charlevoix Montessori Academy for the Arts*
42 students
76.2% poor
561033.1%0%20.7%
Innocademy*
340 students
30.3% poor
21203035.2%19.3%20.1%
New School High*
82 students
12.2% poor
712100%0%10.2%
Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona ESD - District created from ISD
218 students
77.5% poor
1922250%0%0%
Barry ISD - District created from ISD
170 students
58.2% poor
2925250%0%0%
Bay-Arenac ISD - District created from ISD
851 students
61.6% poor
1501481530.7%0%0%
Charlevoix-Emmet ISD - District created from ISD
392 students
42.9% poor
6263640%0%0%
Eastern Upper Peninsula ISD - District created from ISD
189 students
50.8% poor
4847450%2.1%0%
Dickinson-Iron ISD - District created from ISD
210 students
65.7% poor
3736352.8%0%0%
Eaton RESA - District created from ISD
359 students
72.7% poor
92109940%1.1%0%
Traverse Bay Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,077 students
58.4% poor
2762762780%0%0%
Gratiot-Isabella RESD - District created from ISD
221 students
74.2% poor
7875761.3%1.3%0%
Hillsdale ISD - District created from ISD
374 students
69.5% poor
4445462.2%0%0%
Copper Country ISD - District created from ISD
248 students
74.2% poor
38404112.5%7.9%12.3%
Huron ISD - District created from ISD
204 students
59.8% poor
5051520%0%0%
Ionia ISD - District created from ISD
490 students
49.4% poor
1251121160%0%0%
Iosco RESA - District created from ISD
232 students
71.6% poor
2219230%0%0%
Lewis Cass ISD - District created from ISD
284 students
64.4% poor
4744384.5%0%7.8%
Kalamazoo RESA - District created from ISD
2,084 students
52.3% poor
1621771677.9%5.6%6.6%
Sanilac ISD - District created from ISD
317 students
69.1% poor
3334360%0%5.6%
Gogebic-Ontonagon ISD - District created from ISD
117 students
51.3% poor
2120184.9%14.3%5.4%
Lapeer ISD - District created from ISD
294 students
60.5% poor
5756590%1.7%0%
Livingston ESA - District created from ISD
619 students
46% poor
1441651650%0%0%
Midland County Educational Service Agency - District created from ISD
1,775 students
66.4% poor
6266650%1.6%4.6%
Macomb ISD - District created from ISD
3,651 students
58.9% poor
3503553590%0%0%
C.O.O.R. ISD - District created from ISD
318 students
71.4% poor
2221260%4.5%3.8%
Manistee ISD - District created from ISD
73 students
82.2% poor
2728270%3.7%3.7%
Mecosta-Osceola ISD - District created from ISD
530 students
55.5% poor
9992940%0%0%
Menominee ISD - District created from ISD
107 students
72% poor
1618190%0%0%
Monroe ISD - District created from ISD
1,279 students
56.1% poor
1691701790%2.4%0%
St. Joseph County ISD - District created from ISD
474 students
55.7% poor
6564663.1%1.5%3%
Muskegon Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,535 students
65.6% poor
7383887.2%4.1%0%
Montcalm Area ISD - District created from ISD
525 students
51.8% poor
991021052%0%2.9%
Oakland Schools - District created from ISD
2,768 students
69.3% poor
1401321370%0%0%
Kent ISD - District created from ISD
2,918 students
57.3% poor
5645945830%0%0.2%
Lenawee ISD - District created from ISD
596 students
57.7% poor
1401391310.7%1.4%2.3%
Shiawassee Regional ESD - District created from ISD
598 students
62.7% poor
8785911.2%1.2%2.2%
Cheb-Otsego-Presque Isle ESD - District created from ISD
307 students
51.1% poor
3946502.2%0%2%
Clare-Gladwin Regional Education Service District - District created from ISD
379 students
61.5% poor
5149494%0%2%
Wexford-Missaukee ISD - District created from ISD
421 students
48.2% poor
7676780%0%0%
Delta-Schoolcraft ISD - District created from ISD
321 students
81.9% poor
4544410%0%0%
Ottawa Area ISD - District created from ISD
1,426 students
50.1% poor
1481511623.3%3.4%1.9%
Calhoun Intermediate School District - District created from ISD
1,208 students
60.3% poor
2022001922%0.5%1.6%
Marquette-Alger RESA - District created from ISD
124 students
62.9% poor
2021210%0%0%
Newaygo County RESA - District created from ISD
465 students
55.7% poor
6566661.5%0%1.5%
Allegan Area Educational Service Agency - District created from ISD
426 students
48.6% poor
8881811.2%1.1%1.2%
Branch ISD - District created from ISD
551 students
58.3% poor
8081810%1.3%1.2%
Saginaw ISD - District created from ISD
837 students
63.7% poor
1891721701.2%1.1%1.2%
St. Clair County RESA - District created from ISD
600 students
69.5% poor
7781931.2%2.6%1.1%
Van Buren ISD - District created from ISD
641 students
40.7% poor
2121951920%1.4%0%
Washtenaw ISD - District created from ISD
1,275 students
60.4% poor
1371591880.6%0%0%
Berrien RESA - District created from ISD
800 students
64.4% poor
1221191360%0.8%0.7%
Ingham ISD - District created from ISD
1,365 students
60.9% poor
1581571630%1.9%0.6%
Tuscola ISD - District created from ISD
550 students
74.7% poor
9595960%0%0%
Jackson ISD - District created from ISD
1,215 students
64% poor
2222192280%0%0.4%
West Shore Educational Service District - District created from ISD
417 students
71.5% poor
8280770%0%0%
Genesee ISD - District created from ISD
3,744 students
65.9% poor
2432543992%1.6%0.3%
Clinton County RESA - District created from ISD
349 students
40.4% poor
6265630%0%0%

Source: Michigan Department of Education’s Office of Educator Excellence

Note: Poor indicates the percentage of students who are considered economically disadvantaged. The majority of those are eligible for a free or reduced price lunch because of their family income.

long-term subs data

The increase in long-term substitutes is an open secret among school leaders across the state, but may not be well known to the public. Schools aren’t required to inform parents when their children are taught by teachers with no education background (though some told Bridge they do), and several organizations including the Michigan Department of Education downplayed the significance of the trend. 

Still, the growth in untrained teachers appears to run counter to calls to improve academic achievement in the states’ struggling public education system.

Indeed, Michigan legislators lowered state standards for substitute permits in 2018, from requiring 90 hours of college credit to requiring 60 hours – the equivalent of two years of college – or an associate’s degree.

No education groups objected.

In response to a written question on whether long-term substitutes impact learning in Michigan classrooms, Leah Breen, director of MDE’s Office of Educator Excellence, responded: “Yes, we think that the use of long-term substitute teachers are an important piece of solving educator shortages in some of our hardest-to-staff districts, and in lieu of being able to fill these placements with certified teachers, are the next best option for students.”

Dan Quisenberry, executive director of the Michigan Association of Public School Academies, which advocates for the state’s charter school industry, also downplayed the impact of long-term substitutes, pointing to a Brookings Institution study that found no connection between teacher certification and student learning (though other studies show mixed results).

Vidmar

Lou Ann Vidmar, a former art teacher who now represents union teachers in Cass and Berrien counties in southwest Michigan, calls being taught by a long-term substitute a “wasted year” for students. (Bridge photo by Ron French)

But Lou Ann Vidmar, a former art teacher who now represents union teachers in Cass and Berrien counties in southwest Michigan, said she’s seen the negative impact of long-term subs on students, especially those from high-poverty schools where scores are typically well below state averages.

“It’s a wasted year,” for those students, she said. “It's just wasted time because usually that sub has not been trained in that subject matter.

“You are setting yourself up for failure,” Vidmar said.

Moje, of U-M, said the impact on students being taught by untrained teachers could be devastating. 

“Having an effective teacher throughout one’s learning life is the single most important factor in a child’s academic success,” Moje said. “When it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, a teacher is estimated to have two to three times the impact of any other school factors, including services, facilities, and even leadership.

A Stanford study found that students in classrooms led by certified teachers had higher academic achievement than students in classrooms of uncertified teachers are less effective. 

Not the substitutes of yesteryear

Students and parents are familiar with short-term substitute teachers who pinch-hit in classrooms for teachers who are sick.

By contrast, long-term substitutes are hired by schools to be the full-time teacher in a classroom, often for a full school year.

A long-term substitute in Michigan can range from a certified teacher who is teaching a class in a subject they are not certified to teach, to someone with an associate’s degree in any subject whatsoever, to someone who attended two years of college without finishing and has no teacher education training.

Bridge analyzed data received from the Office of Educator Excellence through a Freedom of Information Act request. Bridge combined three categories of substitute permits that districts request from MDE – full-year basic, full-year shortage and extended daily – to provide a more complete representation of the number of classrooms headed by substitutes for an extended period of time. That methodology was endorsed by Craig Thiel of the Citizens Research Council of Michigan, a nonpartisan public policy research organization.

Absent from that count are people hired as expert substitutes – mechanics for an auto mechanics vocational tech program, for example – and people who work as short-term substitutes, by filling in for sick or absent teachers on a day-to-day basis.

To students and parents, long-term subs are virtually indistinguishable from certified teachers – they are full-time teachers reporting to the same classroom every day. Their pay can range from the same as first-year certified teachers in some school districts (typically in the low $30,000s) to less than $100 per school day in other districts and charters. 

As recently as the 2014-15 school year, there were only 235 long-term substitutes teaching in Michigan public schools, which include traditional school districts and charter schools. By 2018-19, that number had exploded to 2,538.

Last school year, 1 in 27 teachers in the state’s traditional and charter public schools (3.4 percent) was a long-term substitute, according to Bridge’s analysis.

Hundreds of districts had few to no long-term subs. But others, typically higher-poverty, lower-performing schools, they were far more common.

“I don’t want to sound like the sky is falling,” said Chris Wigent, executive director of the Michigan Association of Superintendents and School Administrators. “But having a quality teacher in front of children makes a big difference, and we’re not seeing that right now.”

Long-term subs data

‘A necessity’

The genesis for Michigan’s long-term substitute explosion is a growing teacher shortage in some geographic areas of the state. 

Enrollment in teacher prep programs at Michigan universities dropped 66 percent over seven years between 2009 and 2016. While overall, there are enough students graduating from Michigan’s university-based teaching programs to replace teachers who retire and quit, they are not evenly distributed geographically or by teaching specialty, according to a report by the Citizens Research Council of Michigan.

Teacher shortages tend to hit hardest where classrooms are more challenging and pay is the lowest; often that leaves urban and rural schools scrambling to find certified teachers, said former Benton Harbor Superintendent Robert Herrera, who recently left the impoverished, urban district to become superintendent in Farmington, a middle-class Detroit suburb.

“If I’m in Farmington, I don’t have a teacher shortage,” Herrera said. “I posted a Spanish teacher opening, had 12 applicants. In [Benton Harbor] I’d get no applications.”

Farmington, in Oakland County, had two long-term subs among its 656 teaching slots.

Many students will never see a long-term substitute. They are rare at the state’s wealthiest districts, such as Troy, Bloomfield Hills, East Grand Rapids, Rockford, Saline and Dexter. Of the 16 districts with at least 100 teachers and low poverty (fewer than 20 percent of students), there were two long-term subs last year among their 5,200 teachers and 82,300 students.

Other children can’t avoid them. 

In 83 districts – 77 charters and six traditional public districts – long-term subs accounted for at least one in five teaching positions. Overall, long-term subs equaled 35 percent of the teaching slots in those districts, which enrolled 41,700 kids last year. Nearly half of those districts, 39, were in Wayne County.

Among them is Voyageur Academy in Detroit, one of the city’s larger charters with over 1,100 students. Voyageur Superintendent Vergil Smith  said he would love to have all certified teachers at his school, but last year, Voyageur had 29 long-term subs – nearly half of a teaching staff of 59. The school’s teaching staff went from 7 percent long-term substitutes in 2017-18, to 49 percent a year later.

Smith said that while some of the subs had bachelor’s degrees, the “vast majority do not have four-year degrees. Some have associate [degrees].”

Smith argued that some long-term subs are the equal of a certified teacher; and not all certified teachers are good in the classroom. But he said he’d prefer to hire people who have gotten professional certifications.

“Generally the certified teacher does a better job, they’re more competent, they’ve been trained, they have a toolbox of strategies to use. But that doesn’t guarantee success,” he said.

Finding certified teachers “is one of my biggest challenges because that’s going to impact the trajectory of the entire school year. It impacts the culture, the scores, the staff relationships,” Smith said.

Because charter schools tend to pay teachers less they’ve been hit by the teacher shortage both first and hardest.

Charter leader Quisenberry said the long-term sub problem was “not a charter school problem” but one of supply and demand: There aren’t enough teachers in the state.

He defended charters and their increasing reliance on long-term subs, and pointed out that districts such as Detroit are able to hire away certified teachers from charters because of better pay and benefits packages.

Unions represent most traditional public school teachers in the state and school districts must publicize their collective bargaining agreements which delineate teacher pay. Most charters do not have unions and they are not required to divulge how much each teacher is paid. 

Last year, Detroit district superintendent Vitti lured certified teachers to fill hundreds of open DPS positions with $3,000 hiring bonuses. Many came from area charter schools and helped the district dramatically shrink the number of classes taught by long-term subs.

“That success came at the expense of smaller districts” such as charters, said Paula Simmons, president of human resources for Elite School Management, which handles hiring for the Detroit Service Learning Academy, which pulled 47 long-term sub permits to help cover 61 teaching slots last year.

Charters have few options, Quisenberry said, when certified staff leave for other opportunities and have to have someone in the classroom. “A permit is better than nobody,” he said and suggested that research shows that teacher certification is not a guarantor of success.

Quisenberry admitted that hiring certified teachers remains a challenge. 

“I would never agree that charters aren't competitive, but it's widely known that [Detroit Public Schools] offers bonuses and increased pay. And if you're looking at a brand-new teacher, a relatively young teacher in their profession, and they're willing to teach in an urban environment, they're likely to choose a district that's throwing cash like that,” he said.

Officials from authorizers that oversee charters  told Bridge they are aware of the hiring struggles and said they are working with charter operators to increase the number of qualified teachers.

Janelle Brzezinski, a spokeswoman for Central Michigan University’s charter school office, which oversees more than 50 charters, said the school makes sure its charters follow state rules regarding certification and long-term permits.

If CMU sees that a charter has numerous teacher vacancies, it requires a plan to “remedy” the situation “by having full-time teachers,” Brzezinski said. Sixteen of the CMU’s more than 50 charters had long-term subs equal to 20 percent or more of teaching slots last year.

Some rural traditional school districts have also turned to long-term substitutes. In tiny Mid-Peninsula School District, covering 350 square miles around Hiawatha National Forest, four of the 12 teachers –  a third – are long-term substitutes. Hiring teachers who aren’t certified, or not certified in the subject areas they are teaching, is sometimes a necessity when the district can’t find qualified teachers to move to the rural Upper Peninsula, officials said.

“We posted for high school science and high school math (positions) twice and couldn’t find anyone,” said Mid-Peninsula Superintendent Eric VanDamme. “I searched high and low for these folks. Our applicant pool is narrower every year.”

VanDamme was able to hire long-term substitutes who he said are qualified (one was certified to teach in Florida, VanDamme said), but he acknowledged the problem isn’t going away soon.

“One of our biggest problems is our lack of ability to offer competitive wage scales compared to other professions,” VanDamme said. “I can be a plumber in rural northern Michigan who makes $65,000 plus benefits, or go to school for four years (to be a teacher) and make $30,000 and have $80,000 in student loans. That’s easy math.”

At Charlton Heston Academy charter school in Northern Michigan’s Roscommon County, 44 percent of teachers were long-term substitutes in 2018-19. Charlton Heston Superintendent David Patterson said the school has had trouble attracting certified teachers, but also said he believes the school’s long-term subs are doing a great job.

The growth in long-term substitutes is too recent for an analysis on the impact on learning. But students attending schools with low student achievement on Michigan’s M-STEP tests are more likely to be in a district with more long-term subs than the state average.

For example, Charlton Heston charter school has the highest share of long-term substitutes in the four-county Crawford Oscoda Ogemaw Roscommon Intermediate School District, and also has the lowest student achievement. Similarly, Benton Harbor Area Schools has the lowest student achievement in Berrien County and the second-highest share of long-term substitutes in 2018-19, many of whom  did not have a college degree, according to former superintendent Herrera.

Herrera told Bridge the district, which is under pressure from the state to improve test scores, was on track to have more than 60 percent long-term subs next school year.

Vidmar, the former art teacher, is skeptical Benton Harbor can meet the improvements mandated by the state when the number of long-term subs is only going to increasethis upcoming school year.

“How can you do that (improve) with long-term subs?” 

Parents often unaware

Detroit’s Vitti said he doubts most parents even know whether their child’s teacher is certified. In poorer districts like Detroit, he said many parents just assume their child has a certified teacher.

The state doesn't require school districts to inform parents if their child is being taught by a long-term substitute, though Charlton Heston Academy and others told Bridge they do alert parents.  Parents can look up the certification status of their children’s teachers here.

In fact, some Detroit charters with the highest percentages of long-term brag about the high quality of their teachers. For example: 

State Rep. Donna Lasinski, D-Ann Arbor, said the state should require districts to alert parents when a non-certified teacher is hired.

“A well-run school has an obligation to tell parents who is at the front of classrooms,” she said.

“Pretty much any adult with two years of community college can be a warm body in a classroom,” said Sheryl Kennedy, a former teacher and school administrator who is now a Democratic state representative. “It’s terrifying.”

From the point of view of the Michigan Department of Education, though, skyrocketing use of long-term substitutes as full-time teachers is a solution to teacher shortages.

“The Michigan Department of Education (MDE) has been working diligently with Michigan schools to utilize long-term substitute permits,” wrote MDE’s Breen. School districts and charters are “taking advantage of a variety of flexible placements, residency programs, and ‘grow-your-own’ programs, when a certified teacher is not available.”

Breen pointed out that long-term substitutes must receive positive evaluations to keep their jobs, have a mentor teacher and, in core subject areas such as math or science, must have “subject-area expertise.”

“Long-term sub permits allow teachers to expand their endorsements  (allowing them to teach more subjects or grade levels) for greater flexibility and knowledge. They allow paraprofessionals who are in the process of becoming a teacher, and have already demonstrated a commitment to the profession, to teach while they are earning their degree. They allow scientists and mechanics to fill very important roles in the school setting based on content expertise.”

When asked if long-term subs represent a diminution of teacher quality, Breen wrote, “The Michigan Department of Education perceives it as a necessity, rather than a diminution.”

Kennedy, D-Davison, called the trend “a travesty.”

“I’m super-concerned about it,” Kennedy said. “But it’s a reality. Often, superintendents have to make choices between putting certified teachers in special ed classrooms or regular classrooms .... because there’s such a shortage of certified teachers.”

No quick fix

Education experts say that the quality of the teaching staff is the biggest in-school determinant of student success. "The research shows that kids who have two, three, four strong teachers in a row will eventually excel, no matter what their background, while kids who have even two weak teachers in a row will never recover," wrote Kati Haycock, founder of  The Education Trust,a nonpartisan Washington, D.C.-based group that works to cut achievement gaps in students.

Teaching involves more than knowing a course’s subject matter. An engineer may know the ins and outs of algebra, but might not know how best to demonstrate that knowledge to fidgeting middle-schoolers. Experts say that strategies taught in university teacher prep programs are generally critical to learning effective classroom skills. 

Numerous education and political leaders acknowledge that the mass use of long-term substitutes threatens to hobble the state’s drive to improve education, but that they see few quick fixes. 

“We (the Legislature) talk about the teacher shortage, and MDE says we need to stop talking down about teachers,” said Kennedy, the teacher-turned-lawmaker. “It’s such a basic thing to say.

“But we also need to pay teachers appropriately so young people who want to be teachers can pay their $80,000 in student loans,” Kennedy said.

Brad Paquette, R-Berrien Springs, was a teacher in Niles before joining the Legislature. He said he saw a lot of colleagues leave the profession because of pay, and because classroom teaching bears little resemblance to the theoretical lessons learned in university education programs.

Paquette has his own story about being a substitute. He had just graduated from college and he applied to be a substitute teacher in Benton Harbor to earn a few dollars, Paquette said. “They saw I’d worked at Taco Bell in high school and said I was the new nutrition teacher,” Paquette said. 

Later, when school officials learned he had minored in Spanish in college, he was named the Spanish teacher.

“That lasted about a week,” Paquette said with a laugh, “until MDE found out.”

Today, with teacher shortages more severe and long-term substitutes more accepted, MDE might not have stepped in to stop Paquette from taking those posts.

But Paquette said Michigan’s education problems go far beyond long-term substitutes. 

“Maybe we need to rethink what an education system is,” Paquette said. “Our public schools are nothing like the real world.”

MDE’s Breen said the state needs to find a way to incentivize teachers to live and work in urban and rural areas of the state. That could involve paying teachers more in hard-to-staff areas; student loan forgiveness, housing stipends and child care subsidies.

Those things take money. A statement from Gov. Gretchen Whitmer’s office in response to a query about the growth in long-term substitutes referred to the Democratic governor’s plan to offer more funding for students with greater needs, such as low-income students and English-language learners.

The increase in long-term substitutes ‒- particularly among students who need the most help ‒ should be ringing alarm bells across the state, said Peter Haines, superintendent of Ottawa Intermediate School District.

“This is systemic discrimination,” Haines said. “Parents are bringing their children to our schools with hope. 

“The least we can do is meet them at the door with a qualified teacher."

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Comments

Jim tomlinson
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 8:49am

Gop grand strategy to go with for profit low expertise ed.

Gail J
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:26am

It's no wonder for anyone paying attention. Low pay, lack of supplies (teachers buying classroom supplies) looking for materials at garage sales/flea market and auctions, dealing with poor building maintenance, bad water, increased demands to test, larger class sizes, lack of support staff including para-pros, nurses, counselors, special education, and psychologists. Don't forget demands to get additional training every summer, and jump on the latest "new thing " in education. There are numerous other factors why talented, well-trained staff are leaving the profession in droves. The same reasons new graduates don't last long and others change majors while still in college. Michigan legislators ca re more about what Betsy DeVos says than what their public school employees have been saying for a decade.

Chris Carpenter
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:17am

Can any liberal or teacher bring up education without taking a cheap shot at Betsy DeVos. The DeVos family has donated more money for Art and to help education than all liberal politicians together. The other thing cheap shot are Charter Schools (Some excellent, many good, some average and some are poor)
It would be better if people (Liberals & Conservatives) worked together to come up with funds for supplies for teachers, money for more support staff. Great if some foundation donated money to pay off students loans for staff in areas with staff shortages.

Bones
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:31pm

What an absolute joke. The DeVos family has destroyed public education in Michigan through their support of the charter schools and libertarian politics.

Paul Jordan
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:53pm

Read the article. All the evidence concerning charter schools is there.
Facts: Michigan has the greatest proportion of charter schools in the country. For-profit charter schools must lower costs to realize a profit. Long-term subs with no to minimal qualifications and training will work for much less money than qualified teachers. The greater the proportion of long-term subs in a school, the lower the academic performance of the students.

James
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 2:15pm

Paul, Michigan does not have the greatest proportion of charter schools in the country. Facts matter!

Jack
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 4:12pm

That might be true, but it is my understanding that the "charter laws" are not particularly strict. Feel free to correct me.

Jack Atkinson
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:44am

Here's my story...after 15 years as an administrator at a large university just west of US 23, I was laid off...at age 56. As I applied for positions at said school, I took up substitute teaching. I had had a long standing interest in being a teacher, so this was pretty cool. Anyway, as my job search was going nowhere (lots of silver medals, but no gold), I researched alternative teacher certification programs, and found one in Livonia.
These programs are no cakewalk; they are fast paced, and they require follow up coursework (in the summer) after you receive your "interim" certification. Anyway, as I finished the first part in December of '17, and I live in western Washtenaw County, the market wasn't too fruitful, so I took a long term sub gig...in special ed. At the time, or so I was told, to be a LTS you needed at least an interim cert. Also, the state is so desperate for special ed/needs instructors that it seems to take little more than a pulse to get a job; they very much relaxed the rules. So, I did that, and then was out of work again. Finally, I spent this past year...back in special ed, and was not rehired, so I'm back to job searching.
Closer to the original issue. When they talk about a "teacher shortage," you really do have to dig into the numbers. There are your "go-to districts," which I also call "destination spots." You typically have to have experience or an inside contact (small towns tend to be rather incestuous), but even the larger communities (Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti) really do not have many postings for "classroom teachers." There are websites for local "consortia," who pool their information, easily found on google (Washtenaw consortium, Lenawee consortium, Ingham consortium). I'd say that 75% of the jobs are in some form of special education. Detroit itself (a near impossible drive for me) is loaded with charter schools, many of which remind me of store-front churches (Michigan has very relaxed charter laws). My assumption is that, with lots of these schools that are relying on LTS, they are very low-grade charters and/or are places unwilling to pay a remotely competitive wage or offer decent benefits.

Bob G
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:18am

This story overlooks the unintended consequences of changes in state law in enacted to prevent public employees from so-called "double-dipping" -- retiring and then returning to their same role on a contract basis. The net effect was to severely reduce the number of highly qualified recently retired educators in the long-term substitute-teacher pool -- because if you sub too much your pension gets cut.
Here's a story from back when politicians decided to act to prevent double-dipping:
https://www.cnbc.com/id/44741907
And here's how it impacts Michigan's retired teachers:
https://www.michigan.gov/orsschools/0,4653,7-206-36502_36516-327160--,00...

Jack Strappagance
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 10:49am

Fairly typical Bridge story: "Michigan sucks because of (fill in the topic)." You obviously view that as your mission, but it's getting tiresome. You spend so much time telling us why this state is awful at everything, and very little on either solutions or why this state is special and maybe even GOOD in some ways.

There are 2,500 long-term subs in Michigan, but unless I missed it, you gave us exactly ONE name of who these people are. You're trying to paint them all as just warm bodies they hauled in off the street, but I doubt that's the case. Perhaps that would have destroyed the narrative you were trying to create, but it would have been nice to meet some of these people and hear their stories.

Alexandra Schmidt
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:24pm

Hi Jack,

You can hear stories from two teachers in one of our other stories published on this topic today right there: https://www.bridgemi.com/talent-education/how-wedding-planner-became-uncertified-michigan-teacher-15-hour

Additionally, here's a story featuring the persepctive of a charter school principal who relies on long term subs, as well as a few more subs and their stories: https://www.bridgemi.com/talent-education/north-charter-44-percent-subs-you-cant-tell-difference-supt-says

Thanks for reading and your interest in comprehensive coverage!

- Alexandra Schmidt, Public Engagement Reporter

Jack Strappagance
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 2:17pm

Thank you, Alexandra. I hadn't seen those when I posted my first comment. I'm glad you got a little more perspective in there. It looks like you told the stories of four long-term subs out of the 2,500.

***
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:20am

Should school districts and charters be required to disclose how many of their teachers are long term substitutes without the normal education background? Most parents and students I'm sure have no idea. This could open a huge can of worms and a PR nightmare for schools.

Kevin Grand
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:38am

Based on what I've read in these articles, a better question tbat should be asked is why the certification requirements are there in the first place?

Note: I did not say anything about background checks.

You've cited several examples with college education, but not the "right" college education for the open positions. Not exactly a glowing endorsement in a parallel push to get people to attend college here in Michigan.

If you have someone with the drive and desire to be a teacher, just make it easier to drop the substitute part.of their job title. Or better yet, just drop that hoop altogether.

Bones
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:37pm

Teaching involves so much more than just standing at the head of a class, but none of that matters to the libertarian brain trusts who know that deregulation is the answer to every problem

Kevin Grand
Sat, 08/10/2019 - 11:34am

Your reading comprehension is as spot on as it always is, Bones.

Mind telling everyone exactly why someone with a Bachelors or Masters degree is completely incapable of instructing a class on GRADE SCHOOL science?

This should be good...

Paul Jordan
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 12:45pm

The best clue to people's true motives is their behavior. The best clue to the true motive/goal regarding public education of the anti-government Republicans who have dominated Michigan's government for the past 30+ years is the fact that Michigan's K-12 education system has become one of the worst in the nation. Based on that, their goal has been to effectively destroy public education--because they have done so.
We have a teacher shortage because of the continual erosion of pay & benefits, and disrespect that Michigan's Republican-dominated government has inflicted on teachers. And we elected them, so the fault is ultimately ours. They think that what we want is to pay as little as possible in taxes, and they have delivered. What we have gotten is a government that provides us with mediocre public services, poor roads, and a devastated K-12 education system.
If we value our grandchildren and the future of our state, what is needed is for US to call out small government politicians for the right wing anarchists that they are--and elect people who actually want government to work for us.

Christian Young
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 7:18pm

I totally agree, and this whole thing is troubling. On another note, you're just going to leave my quotes on the cutting room floor, Ron?

C
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 9:04pm

Yet- this article doesn’t mention that the state has CTE courses for students who want to be teachers and there is a movement beginning for districts to “grow their own” teachers by utilizing these CTE programs.

Jennifer Vingsness
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 11:16pm

The box that shows how many subs are in each district is substantially incorrect in the 2 districts I checked. The numbers shown appear to be the total teaching staff employed by the districts.

Peter K
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 8:55pm

What is the rate of absenteeism of full time teachers? Which results in short term fill-ins which are little more than caretakers.